The number of smartphone users surpassed two billion in 2016; the most popular applications are instant messengers. However,
research about benefits and risks for users has yielded contradictory findings and indicates that the relation between smartphone use and
well-being depends on many conditions. We propose mindfulness as a predictor of well-being related to instant messaging. In our study, 211
participants answered short questionnaires on the evenings of five consecutive days. Multilevel analyses showed that a mindful use of instant
messaging was positively related to users’ well-being, as indicated by more positive affect and less stress related to instant messaging.
Moreover, the relation between day-specific mindfulness and well-being was statistically mediated by a more autonomous motivation to use
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