Can we decode phonetic features in inner speech using surface electromyography?

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Description: Although having a long history of scrutiny in experimental psychology, it is still controversial whether inner speech (covert speech) production is accompanied by specific activity in speech muscles. We address this question by briefly reviewing previous findings related to inner speech and to the broader phenomenon of motor imagery. We then present the results of a preregistered experiment looking at the electromyographic correlates of both overt speech and inner speech production of two phonetic classes of nonwords. An automatic classification approach was undertaken to discriminate between two articulatory features contained in nonwords uttered in both overt and covert speech. Although this approach led to reasonable accuracy rates during overt speech production, it failed to discriminate inner speech phonetic content based on surface electromyography signals alone. However, exploratory analyses conducted at the individual level revealed that it seemed possible to distinguish between rounded and spread nonwords covertly produced, in two participants. We discuss these results in relation to the existing literature and suggest alternative ways to test the engagement of the speech motor system during inner speech production. Pre-registered protocol, preprint, data, as well as reproducible code and figures are available at:

License: CC0 1.0 Universal


README The "data" folder contains the merged EMG dataset as a csv file ("emg_data.csv"), as well as summary EMG data from Eskes et al. (2017). The "figures" folder contains the publication-quality version of the figures included in the main manuscript (in .tiff format). The "manuscript" folder contains the paper, written in RMarkdown (the .Rmd file). This file contains the content of the pap...


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