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Description: Review evidence suggests that digital behaviour change interventions, including smartphone applications (apps), can help people reduce their alcohol consumption. Some level of engagement with apps for alcohol reduction is necessary for their effectiveness; however, engagement with such apps tends to be low. Previous studies have highlighted between-subjects predictors of engagement, including psychological (e.g. motivation to change), behavioural (e.g. alcohol consumption) and app-related (e.g. the presence of proactive reminders) variables. However, strategies to promote engagement also need to work on the individual level. Evidence as to whether these between-subjects predictors of engagement are also predictive for individuals is lacking. Qualitative studies have highlighted individual differences in factors considered to be important for engagement (e.g. perceived usefulness of the app, perceived lack of time). However, such studies are limited by relying on prospective or retrospective (as opposed to real-time) self-reports. To overcome some of these limitations, this study will use an N-of-1 design, harnessing twice-daily ecological momentary assessments for 28 days, to examine whether daily fluctuations in i) motivation to reduce alcohol, ii) perceived usefulness of the app, iii) the receipt of a proactive reminder, iv) perceived lack of time and v) alcohol consumption are predictive of within-person variation in engagement with a theory- and evidence-based alcohol reduction app, Drink Less.


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