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Description: Based on seminal minimal group experiments, influential psychological theories of the last 50 years have asserted that discrimination follows from intergroup relations and social identity. But is group division required for discriminatory behaviour to arise? In 6 pre-registered experiments (more than 900 subjects), we showed that discriminatory strategies strongly persist against a single person that demonstrates a different versus the same quantity estimate, painting preference, or coin toss outcome (Experiments 1-3), with 43.1% more money awarded for sameness relative to difference conditions (Experiments 4-6). Discrimination based on differences between individuals in the absence of group division, challenges prevailing theoretical and societal views: it requires the mechanisms that govern discrimination to be substantially updated and suggests that discrimination is more widespread than currently assumed.


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