Prediction models for acute kidney injury in critical ill patients: a protocol for systematic review and critical appraisal

Contributors:
  1. Danqiong Wang
  2. Weiwen Zhang
  3. Jian Luo
  4. Honglong Fang
  5. Shanshan Jing

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Description: Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) has high morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs), which can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD), more costs and longer hospital stay. Early identification of AKI is crucial for clinical intervention. Though various risk prediction models have been developed to identify AKI, the overall predictive performance varies widely across studies. Due to the different disease scenarios and the small number of externally validated cohorts in different prediction models, the stability and applicability of these models for AKI in critically ill patients are controversial. The purpose of this systematic review is to map and assess prediction models for AKI in critical ill patients based on a comprehensive literature review. Methods and analysis A systematic review with meta-analysis is designed and will be conducted according to the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies (CHARMS). Three databases including Pubmed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE from inception through October 2020 will be searched to identify all studies describing development and/or external validation of original multivariable models for predicting AKI in critical ill patients. Random-effects meta-analyses for external validation studies will be performed to estimate the performance of each model. The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation and the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman (HKSJ) method under a random-effects model will be applied to estimate the summary C statistic and 95% CI. 95% prediction interval (PI) integrating the heterogeneity will also be calculated to pool C-statistics to predict a possible range of C-statistics of future validation studies. Two investigators will extract data independently using the CHARMS checklist. Study quality or risk of bias will be assessed using the Prediction Model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval and patient informed consent are not required because all information will be abstracted from published literatures. We plan to share our results with clinicians and publish them in a general or critical care medicine peer- reviewed journal. We also plan to present our results at critical care international conferences.

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