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**Q&A zoom session:** [Tuesday, Sep 8, 10:30AM London time (GMT+1).](https://huji.zoom.us/j/97256938462?pwd=L0J5aWxqNUkzNit0aUV6LzdVWEFSZz09) What mechanisms are involved in the licensing of NPIs? The so-called free choice occurrences of NPIs have provided a fertile ground for comparing different theories of NPI licensing, where the required assumptions of the theories come into a sharp relief. Focusing on some new data involving plurality, we argue for a two-layered approach (which we call "the direct approach" in the talk) that assumes both a condition on NPI licensing (which can be derived from specific assumptions about NPIs) and a strengthening mechanism (exhaustification). Unfortunately, though by necessity, many issues and further points of comparison between the different theories cannot be attended to in the talk. **Structure of the talk:** 1. The stage 2. The argument 3. Variation and outlook **Related recent work:** * [Number in NPI Licensing](https://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/004954) (the paper introduces and develops the main argument of the talk in greater detail) * [Any: Logic, Likelihood, and Context](https://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/004552), in *Language and Linguistics Compass* (the paper reviews, and further supports, the two-layered "direct" approach) * [Any, alternatives, and pruning](http://lukacrnic.com/pdfs/anyalt.pdf) (a discussion of how the theory of NPIs gels with the more general theory of pruning) * [A course on NPIs](https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/linguistics-and-philosophy/24-979-topics-in-semantics-negative-polarity-items-fall-2018/) (a discussion of further issues in the theory of NPIs) * [Free choice and divisiveness](https://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/005217), with Andreas Haida (the paper discusses missing free choice construals of mass NPIs, and presents an alternative take on variation) **Selected further references:** Bar-Lev, Moshe & Danny Fox. [Free choice, simplification, and Innocent Inclusion.](https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11050-020-09162-y) Chierchia, Gennaro. 2004. [Scalar implicatures, polarity phenomena and the syntax/pragmatics interface.](https://scholar.harvard.edu/chierchia/publications/scalar-implicatures-polarity-phenomena-and-syntaxpragmatics-interface) Chierchia, Gennaro. 2013. [Logic in Grammar.](https://global.oup.com/academic/product/logic-in-grammar-9780199697977?cc=si&lang=en&) Crnic, Luka. 2014. [Non-monotonicity in NPI Licensing.](https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11050-014-9104-6) Crnic, Luka. 2017. [Free choice under ellipsis.](https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/tlir/34/2/article-p249.xml) Dayal, Veneeta. 1998. [ANY as Inherently Modal.](https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/campuspress.yale.edu/dist/6/2964/files/2019/05/Any-98.pdf) Dayal, Veneeta. 2013. [A Viability Constraint on Alternatives for Free Choice.](https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/campuspress.yale.edu/dist/6/2964/files/2019/05/viability-2012.pdf) Kadmon, Nirit & Fred Landman. 1992. [Any.](https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00985272) Lahiri, Utpal. 1998. [Focus and Negative Polarity in Hindi.](https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1008211808250)