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<p><strong>Q&A zoom session:</strong> <a href="" rel="nofollow">Tuesday, Sep 8, 10:30AM London time (GMT+1).</a></p> <p>What mechanisms are involved in the licensing of NPIs? The so-called free choice occurrences of NPIs have provided a fertile ground for comparing different theories of NPI licensing, where the required assumptions of the theories come into a sharp relief. Focusing on some new data involving plurality, we argue for a two-layered approach (which we call "the direct approach" in the talk) that assumes both a condition on NPI licensing (which can be derived from specific assumptions about NPIs) and a strengthening mechanism (exhaustification). Unfortunately, though by necessity, many issues and further points of comparison between the different theories cannot be attended to in the talk.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the talk:</strong></p> <ol> <li>The stage</li> <li>The argument</li> <li>Variation and outlook</li> </ol> <p><strong>Related recent work:</strong> </p> <ul> <li> <p><a href="" rel="nofollow">Number in NPI Licensing</a><br> (the paper introduces and develops the main argument of the talk in greater detail)</p> </li> <li> <p><a href="" rel="nofollow">Any: Logic, Likelihood, and Context</a>, in <em>Language and Linguistics Compass</em><br> (the paper reviews, and further supports, the two-layered "direct" approach)</p> </li> <li> <p><a href="" rel="nofollow">Any, alternatives, and pruning</a><br> (a discussion of how the theory of NPIs gels with the more general theory of pruning)</p> </li> <li> <p><a href="" rel="nofollow">A course on NPIs</a><br> (a discussion of further issues in the theory of NPIs)</p> </li> <li> <p><a href="" rel="nofollow">Free choice and divisiveness</a>, with Andreas Haida<br> (the paper discusses missing free choice construals of mass NPIs, and presents an alternative take on variation)</p> </li> </ul> <p><strong>Selected further references:</strong></p> <p>Bar-Lev, Moshe & Danny Fox. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Free choice, simplification, and Innocent Inclusion.</a></p> <p>Chierchia, Gennaro. 2004. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Scalar implicatures, polarity phenomena and the syntax/pragmatics interface.</a></p> <p>Chierchia, Gennaro. 2013. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Logic in Grammar.</a></p> <p>Crnic, Luka. 2014. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Non-monotonicity in NPI Licensing.</a></p> <p>Crnic, Luka. 2017. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Free choice under ellipsis.</a></p> <p>Dayal, Veneeta. 1998. <a href="" rel="nofollow">ANY as Inherently Modal.</a></p> <p>Dayal, Veneeta. 2013. <a href="" rel="nofollow">A Viability Constraint on Alternatives for Free Choice.</a></p> <p>Kadmon, Nirit & Fred Landman. 1992. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Any.</a></p> <p>Lahiri, Utpal. 1998. <a href="" rel="nofollow">Focus and Negative Polarity in Hindi.</a></p>
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