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**Q&A zoom session:** [Tuesday, Sep 8, 10:30AM London time (GMT+1).]( What mechanisms are involved in the licensing of NPIs? The so-called free choice occurrences of NPIs have provided a fertile ground for comparing different theories of NPI licensing, where the required assumptions of the theories come into a sharp relief. Focusing on some new data involving plurality, we argue for a two-layered approach (which we call "the direct approach" in the talk) that assumes both a condition on NPI licensing (which can be derived from specific assumptions about NPIs) and a strengthening mechanism (exhaustification). Unfortunately, though by necessity, many issues and further points of comparison between the different theories cannot be attended to in the talk. **Structure of the talk:** 1. The stage 2. The argument 3. Variation and outlook **Related recent work:** * [Number in NPI Licensing]( (the paper introduces and develops the main argument of the talk in greater detail) * [Any: Logic, Likelihood, and Context](, in *Language and Linguistics Compass* (the paper reviews, and further supports, the two-layered "direct" approach) * [Any, alternatives, and pruning]( (a discussion of how the theory of NPIs gels with the more general theory of pruning) * [A course on NPIs]( (a discussion of further issues in the theory of NPIs) * [Free choice and divisiveness](, with Andreas Haida (the paper discusses missing free choice construals of mass NPIs, and presents an alternative take on variation) **Selected further references:** Bar-Lev, Moshe & Danny Fox. [Free choice, simplification, and Innocent Inclusion.]( Chierchia, Gennaro. 2004. [Scalar implicatures, polarity phenomena and the syntax/pragmatics interface.]( Chierchia, Gennaro. 2013. [Logic in Grammar.]( Crnic, Luka. 2014. [Non-monotonicity in NPI Licensing.]( Crnic, Luka. 2017. [Free choice under ellipsis.]( Dayal, Veneeta. 1998. [ANY as Inherently Modal.]( Dayal, Veneeta. 2013. [A Viability Constraint on Alternatives for Free Choice.]( Kadmon, Nirit & Fred Landman. 1992. [Any.]( Lahiri, Utpal. 1998. [Focus and Negative Polarity in Hindi.](