Individual Differences in Personality Change Across the Adult Lifespan
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Description: Objective: A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the lifespan is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Method: Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into fourteen age groups (ages 16-84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Results: Across the adult lifespan, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For emotional stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the lifespan. Conclusions: These results inform theories of lifespan development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change.