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Description: Using a person-centered analysis, we identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in a sample of 1106 college undergraduates. Productive procrastination is defined by the replacement of one adaptive behavior with another adaptive—albeit less important—behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). Cluster analysis identified five unique academic procrastination styles—non-procrastinators, academic productive procrastinators, non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators (high levels of unproductive and productive non-academic procrastination) and classic procrastinators. Controlling for gender, procrastination style predicted alcohol-related problems, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps < .01). Academic productive procrastinators and non-procrastinators reported the most positive academic and alcohol outcomes. Non-academic procrastinators reported lower GPA, more alcohol-related problems and increased risk of alcohol use disorders. Non-academic procrastinators’ lower GPA was mediated by alcohol cravings and alcohol-related problems, as measured by AUDIT and RAPI scores. These findings suggest that certain maladaptive styles of procrastination may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.


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Cleaned data containing items required to reproduce analyses reported in Westgate et al. (2017). Additional measures collected as part of a larger pro...

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