Global Prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae in raw milk of dairy cow: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
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Description: Antimicrobial resistance has become a major health problem worldwide, one of which is resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotic. Beta lactam agents are one of the most favourable drugs for many diseases in human or animal, and it is suggested to be the main source of increasing resistance to beta lactam (Sarojamma and Ramakrishna, 2011). Some bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae, have been reported to produce an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) that have capability to hydrolysing penicillin, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, and monobactam (Rupp and Fey, 2003). Thus, the treatment using many beta-lactam antibiotic for some disease caused by bacteria that carrying ESBL may not be effective. The most common ESBL Enterobacteriaceae are Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (Ibrahim et al., 2016), although some other species such as Salmonella, Acinetobacter baumannii, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also reported to produce ESBL (Segar et al., 2015). The presence of Enterobacteriaceae, including in milk has been related to many mastitis cases in dairy cattle (Abed et al., 2021; Girma and Tamir, 2022). In addition, the prevalence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae from dairy and milk has also been reported (Sudarwanto et al., 2015; Badri et al., 2017; Rawat et al., 2018). The presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae in milk is concerning as ESBLs are often located on plasmid that can be transferred between strains and bacterial species. However, to the extent of our knowledge, current global status related to ESBL Enterobacteriaceae in milk has not been analyse.