Despite widespread antisemitism and the Nazi regime's extensive capacity for group-selective violence, violence during the Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany in November 1938 was not ubiquitous. According to the data that I introduce in this project, pogrom participants did not attack approximately 28 percent of the 1,868 German synagogues still standing by the pogrom's onset. Given this variation, what explains why Kristallnacht resulted in antisemitic violence in some locations, but not in others? More generally, what explains spatial variation in violence during pogrom episodes?
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