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Description: The aims of this study are to establish the unique contributions which decoding and phonological awareness have on spelling in Grade 3 isiXhosa first language readers, as well as to determine whether the strength of these relationships differ by spelling ability. We include an initial exploratory study (study 1) and then aimed to replicate the results with a large sample in study 2. The research questions of our preregistered study are: 1. What are the unique contributions of decoding and phonological awareness to spelling in Grade 3 isiXhosa readers? 2. To what extent does overall spelling ability affect the strength of the relationship between decoding and spelling, and phonological awareness and spelling?

License: CC-By Attribution 4.0 International


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