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Theories derived from lab-based research emphasize the importance of mentalizing for social interaction and propose a link between mentalizing, autistic traits, and social behavior. We took social cognitive research outside the lab to test these assumptions in everyday life. Via smartphone-based experience sampling and logging of smartphone usage behavior we quantified mentalizing and social interaction in our participants' natural environment. Both measures were compared with autistic traits, controlling for Big Five personality dimensions, social anxiety, and verbal intelligence. Mentalizing occurred less frequently than reasoning about actions and participants preferred to mentalize when alone. Autistic traits were negatively correlated with communication via smartphone. Yet, they were not associated with social media usage, a more indirect way of getting in touch with others. We further found no relation between autistic traits and social network size. These findings critically inform recent theories on social cognition and behavior in individuals with and without autism.