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<p>This page contains all the collected study materials and instructions from authors. Also included are comments from other contributors. Click "read more" below or choose the "Wiki" option above for further information.</p> <p>The present replication was conducted by Kathryn Boelk and Whitney Madden under the advisement of Dr. Jon Grahe. The student researchers conducted a direct-plus replication of an experiment originally conducted by Elliot, Niesta Kayser, Greitemeyer, Lichtenfeld, Gramzow, Maier, and Liu (2010). The student researchers began this replication as part of their Advanced Statistics and Methods course in the psychology department at a private, liberal arts university in the Pacific Northwest. </p> <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>What factors contribute to human attraction? Can colors influence how humans respond sexually to one another? Research indicates that color can be highly impactful in the human experience as different colors carry specific meanings. For example, aspects of color like wavelength can affect human arousal and emotional reactions (Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994; Boyatzis & Varghese, 1994) and color has been shown to influence psychological functioning, affect, cognition, behavior, and arousal (Elliot & Niesta, 2008; Lichtenfeld, Maier, Elliot, & Pekrun, 2009). More precisely, multiple studies have demonstrated that the color red enhances people’s attraction toward others, perhaps due to biological and cultural association between red, mating, and love (Elliot et al., 2010; Elliot & Niesta, 2008; Pazda, Elliot, & Greitemeyer, 2012). </p> <p><strong>Method</strong></p> <p>Student researchers replicated a study completed by Elliot, Niesta Kayser, Greitemeyer, Lichtenfeld, Gramzow, Maier, and Liu (2010) which investigated the effect of color on women’s self-reported attraction toward men. Student researchers replicated one of the seven experiments, Experiment Three, from Elliot et al.'s study. For this study, female participants viewed a photograph of a man on a red or gray background and were asked to rate the man's attractiveness (physical attractiveness, sexual desirability, and likability) on a questionnaire. </p> <p>The original authors (Elliot et al., 2010) note that it is not possible to easily replicate the experiment using self-generated materials due to the complications of achieving exact replicas of the colors used in the original study, as determined by spectrophotometer readings. In an effort to more fully examine this claim, the student researchers also printed their own versions of materials for the experiment. The student researchers utilized the same photograph of the target man, but attempted to recreate the red and gray colors used by Elliot et al. through the color dimensions allowed by Photoshop.</p> <p><strong>Hypotheses and Analysis</strong></p> <p>It was hypothesized that women would perceive the target man as only more physically attractive when they viewed his photograph printed on either of the two red backgrounds than on the gray backgrounds, but that there would be no difference between the materials generated by Elliot et al. and those by the student researchers. </p> <p>Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: red/Elliot materials, gray/Elliot materials, red/student materials, or gray/student materials. Differences between these four conditions were measured using a 2(color: red, gray) X 2(material type: CREP-generated, student-generated) between-subjects ANOVA. The data were anonymously released to the Collaborative Replications and Education Project as part of an international effort to replicate psychological studies and further understanding of psychological research.</p> <p>The student researchers found that there were no differences in female participants' self-reported ratings of attraction (physical attraction, sexual attraction) or likability towards the target male according to color (red, gray) or according to the material type (CREP-generated, student-generated). </p> <p><strong>Abstract (Elliot et al., 2010)</strong></p> <p>In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red–attraction and red–status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present research, we document parallels between human and nonhuman females' response to male red. Specifically, in a series of 7 experiments we demonstrate that women perceive men to be more attractive and sexually desirable when seen on a red background and in red clothing, and we additionally show that status perceptions are responsible for this red effect. The influence of red appears to be specific to women's romantic attraction to men: Red did not influence men's perceptions of other men, nor did it influence women's perceptions of men's overall likability, agreeableness, or extraversion. Participants showed no awareness that the research focused on the influence of color. These findings indicate that color not only has aesthetic value but can carry meaning and impact psychological functioning in subtle, important, and provocative ways. </p> <p><strong>Notes from the author</strong></p> <p>Unfortunately, one of the color parameters (chroma) has changed substantially in the five or so years since the pictures were printed, such that the two colors used in the experiment no longer even come close to matching. So, those materials are shot. However, about a year ago, we created materials based on our Study 3 of the same article that I have also found and tested with the spectrophotometer; these are still perfectly matched (we have recently learned the proper way of storing our color materials to maximize retention of the initial values). The CREP team and the first author of the paper agreed that these new materials would be appropriate to conduct the replication study. </p> <p>Important in conducting the study (another note from the author):</p> <p>Regarding the materials, it is not possible to just create materials with Photoshop or by eyeballing because materials created this way will not match each other on non-hue properties and will not match the color properties of the original materials. If you want to do scientific (unconfounded) color work, it is necessary to match colors on non-hue properties, and if you want to replicate (rather than extend or test the generalizability of) prior work, it is necessary to match the color properties of the original materials. This requires the use of a device called a spectrophotometer, which takes a good bit of training to learn how to use. I understand the intuition that any color should be fine, as this was my initial inclination when starting to get interested in this area. However, after reading in the literature (color reproduction is an entire discipline in and of itself) and getting trained by color scientists at the Rochester Institute of Technology, I came to understand the importance of careful color matching if one is to do scientific research on color. It makes the work slow and painstaking, but affords clear interpretation. On the implications of not matching color properties (which was commonplace until about a dozen years ago), see the following reviews:</p> <p>Valdez P, Mehrabian A. 1994. Effects of color on emotions. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 123: 394-409.</p> <p>Whitfield TW, Whiltshire TJ. 1990. Color psychology: A critical review. Genet. Soc. Gen. Psych. 116: 385-411.</p> <p>Also:</p> <p>The first author suggests that the study should not be run at the end of the semester, as he feels that participants are then not paying attention to the materials. </p> <p><strong>Notes from the CREP Team</strong></p> <p>As noted by the author, color research is difficult. The author has sent us the original materials (see note above) to conduct the replication study. We will send these materials to CREP contributors. Please note that IF CREP contributors would like to conduct a replication with their own created materials, then the difference in study materials should be noted as a factor in the analyses, such that the author's concerns above are addressed. Because the CREP Research Awards are designated for close or close+ replications, studies conducted using materials created by replicators will not be eligible for a CREP Research Award. Finally, the color materials have been uploaded to the site, but the CREP team needs to be consulted before these materials are utilized. </p> <p><strong>Materials</strong></p> <p>All the materials below have been obtained from the first author (including information on how to conduct the study). </p> <ul> <li><a href="http://openscienceframework.org/project/xZJ5r/files/InformationForm.doc" rel="nofollow">Information form regarding the study</a></li> <li><a href="http://openscienceframework.org/project/xZJ5r/files/PreparingforaSession.doc" rel="nofollow">Information form on how to prepare for a study</a></li> <li><a href="http://openscienceframework.org/project/xZJ5r/files/PsiChiReplicationNotes.doc" rel="nofollow">Replication notes for Psi Chi</a></li> <li><a href="http://openscienceframework.org/project/xZJ5r/files/Questionnaire.doc" rel="nofollow">Questionnaire from the study</a></li> <li><a href="http://openscienceframework.org/project/xZJ5r/files/Script.doc" rel="nofollow">Script for the study</a></li> </ul>
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