**Testing Materials** The stimuli consist of five objects (teddy bear, box, ball, blanket and a book) on a table in a room with a chair, window and a door. Some of the test items are expected (e.g. learners could expect a ball to go in a box), however, many of the test items (e.g. Put the ball in the blanket) are unusual. These "unexpected items" are included in order to determine whether the experimental training phases enable a less context-dependent understanding of prepositions. **Testing Procedure** Each child is tested individually. The format of the pretest and follow-up tests are the same and use three different but equivalent versions of the same test (found in the "Print Bear Ball and Box Tests" folder). Using different but equivalent test versions follows the parallel-forms method for increasing statistical reliability. It is important that the order in which the three different test versions are administered for the pretest, post-test, and delayed post-tests is counterbalanced across participants. The format of all testing sessions is a warm-up phase, part A in which the child hears nine recorded sentences and performed the associated actions, and part B in which the examiner performed nine actions and the child speaks. The test also includes part C which was deliberately designed to be difficult to avoid ceiling effects and to make retention challenging. Part C sound files are also included here. The testing session lasts about 15-20 minutes. PsychoPy Experiment Builder (v1.84.2) was used to create and run the test sessions (Peirce, 2009) making it possible to test children in different locations (like two schools) and have learners hear the same oral instructions.
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