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**Abstract** To ensure robust scientific conclusions, cognitive modelers should optimize planned experimental designs a priori in order to maximize the expected information gain for answering the substantive question of interest. Both from the perspective of philosophy of science, but also within classical and Bayesian statistics, it is crucial to tailor empirical studies to the specific cognitive models under investigation before collecting any new data. In practice, methods such as design optimization, classical power analysis, and Bayesian design analysis provide indispensable tools for planning and designing informative experiments. Given that cognitive models provide precise predictions for future observations, we especially highlight the benefits of model-based Monte Carlo simulations to judge the expected information gain provided by different possible designs for cognitive modeling.
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