Main content



Loading wiki pages...

Wiki Version:
The EVERYbody Project is an inclusive dissonance-based body image intervention created by Anna Ciao and the Eating and Body Image research team at Western Washington University. The EVERYbody Project was created by adapting an existing dissonance-based body image program (the Body Project; Stice, Shaw, Burton, & Wade, 2006) to directly discuss diversity within cultural appearance ideals (including race, gender identity, sexuality, ability, and age) and critique the individual and collective impact of pursuing exclusive appearance norms. **Randomized-controlled trials evaluating the EVERYbody Project** **Trial 1 (2016-2017)** piloted the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of the EVERYbody Project. College students within a university in the Pacific Northwest United were invited to participate in programming (universal intervention target). Professional delivery of the two-session EVERYbody Project was compared to a waitlist control condition (N=98 students total). Intervention groups were facilitated by one "expert" (faculty or staff with body image expertise) and two college student co-facilitators. Mixed methods assessment included a comparison of changes in quantitative eating disorder risk factor outcomes across randomization conditions and among students with marginalized identities at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up. Qualitative interviews assessed the impact of the program on participants with marginalized identities. Feasibility and acceptability of the program was assessed to evaluate the appropriateness of the EVERYbody Project within universal college student audiences. Students who received the EVERYbody Project had greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms, internalized appearance norms, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect compared to the waitlist control through 1-month follow-up, with medium effect sizes. The impact was similar in students with marginalized and majority identities, and qualitative interviews suggested specific positives of the intervention. **Trial 1 Clinical Trials registration**: **Trial 2 (2017-2018)** aimed to further evaluate the intervention using a more disseminable facilitator model: trained college student peer leaders. It also utilized a more rigorous comparison condition, where peer leaders conducted the two-session EVERYbody Project program or a time-matched video and expressive writing intervention. College students within a university in the Pacific Northwest United States were invited to participate in programming (universal intervention target). Quantitative assessment included a comparison of changes in eating disorder risk factor outcomes across randomization conditions at pre- and post-intervention and one-month follow-up. Feasibility and acceptability explored the impact of the peer delivered program within universal college student audiences. In Trial 2 (N=141 students), there were significant changes in two of four outcomes for participants in the EVERYbody Project compared to the video and expressive writing intervention, but overall, the intervention impact was modest, suggesting an open peer leader model may not be the most ideal for delivering this program. **Trial 2 Clinical Trials registration**: **Publication of Trials 1 and 2:** Ciao, A. C., Munson, B. R., Pringle, K. D., Roberts, S. R., Lalgee, I. A., Lawley, K. A., & Brewster, J. (2021). Inclusive dissonance-based body image interventions for college students: Two randomized-controlled trials of the EVERYbody Project. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 89, 301-315. **Trial 3 (2019-2020)** attempted to refine the peer delivery model to increase its impact using “expert” peer leaders to facilitate the EVERYbody Project. Expert peer leaders were defined as students with significant diversity and body image expertise who were screened and supervised closely for facilitation readiness. Students were randomized to receive the EVERYbody Project or a passive video-based intervention. Recruitment for this trial was interrupted in March 2020 due to COVID-19. Results from this trial (final N=84) suggest that EVERYbody Project groups with expert peer leaders can produce sustained changes in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms, with small-medium effect sizes compared to a passive video intervention at three-month follow-up. While full recruitment for this study was not completed due to COVID-19, we are optimistic that an expert peer facilitation model is a viable one for moving forward with EVERYbody Project dissemination. **Trial 3 Clinical Trials registration**: **Trial 4 (recruitment started Jan 2022)** shifted the delivery modality to online following the COVID-19 pandemic. An adapted version of the program, called the EVERYbody Project-Connect, was developed in 2020-2021 and piloted with end-users (college students) in the spring and summer 2021. The resulting program consists of three 90-minute weekly sessions delivered by expert peer leaders over a secure videoconferencing platform. Expert peer facilitators will complete a 16-hour online training and be screened for facilitation readiness before being approved to lead the intervention. Participants (open recruitment; universal prevention framework) will be randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive the EVERYbody Project-Connect or a time-matched, low-dissonance self-help workbook intervention. Participants in this comparison intervention will be provided with an online copy of The Body Is Not An Apology Workbook by author and activist Sonya Renee Taylor and given weekly assignment instructions (90 minutes of activities each week for three weeks). Workbook activities will be completed on their own as a passive self-help intervention. Outcome assessment includes a comparison of changes in eating disorder risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and related constructs across conditions over time (from pre- to post-intervention and through 3-month follow-up). **Trial 4 Clinical Trials registration**