In order to act as allies, men must be motivated to confront sexism. Across two correlational studies, we tested whether men weigh the anticipated costs and benefits of confrontation, similarly to women, when deciding whether to confront sexism on behalf of women. Using path analysis, we also investigated how endorsement of a masculine protection ideology predicted frequency of confronting sexism on behalf of socially close (e.g., girlfriend, sister) versus distant (e.g., acquaintance, stranger) women. Results from Study 1 (N = 148 undergraduate men) revealed that men were motivated by the perceived benefit, but not the perceived cost, when deciding whether to confront sexism. In both studies (Study 2 N = 205 male MTurk workers), the extent to which men endorsed a masculine ideology of protection positively predicted their frequency of confronting for socially close, but not distant women. We conclude that in some cases paternalistic masculinity may promote ally behavior (confronting sexism on behalf of socially close women), although the impact of those confrontations for sexism reduction remains to be tested. Jessica J. Good, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Psychology Davidson College Wall 293 Box 7136 Davidson, NC 28035 email@example.com<mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org> (704) 894-2131 This email message (including any attachments) is for the sole use of the intended receipient(s) and may contain confidential information covered under the Family educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA). If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, you are herby notified that any dissemination, distribution or copying of this message (including any attachments) is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please destroy all copies of the original message (including attachments) and notify me immediately by reply email message or by telephone at 704-894-2131. Thank you.