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  1. J. André Knottnerus
  2. Jos Kleijnen
  3. Peter Van Dael

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Category: Project

Description: We propose to launch the Standardized Protocol Items: Recommendations for Observational Studies (SPIROS) initiative. This international project aims to improve the completeness and use of study protocols of observational studies by producing expert-based recommendations for a minimum set of items to be addressed in those protocols. The study will use guidance from EQUATOR (, an international initiative seeking to improve the quality of scientific publications by promoting transparent and accurate reporting. Link:

License: CC0 1.0 Universal


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