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Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., ‘Click on the beans’). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with the target (e.g., ‘beetle’). Between-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in Spanish that was shared with the target (‘bigote’, ‘mustache’ in English). Participant groups varied in their age-of-acquisition of English and Spanish, and were examined in one of three language modes (Grosjean, 1998, 2001). A strong within- language (English) lexical competition (or cohort effect) was modulated by language mode and age of second language acquisition. A weaker between-language (Spanish) cohort effect was influenced primarily by the age-of-acquisition of Spanish. These results highlight the role of age-of- acquisition and mode in language processing. They are discussed in comparison to previous studies addressing the role of these two variables and in terms of existing models of bilingual word recognition.
Canseco-Gonzalez, E., Brehm, L., Brick, C., Brown-Schmidt, S., Fischer, K., & Wagner, K. (2010). Carpet or cárcel: the effect of age of acquisition and language mode on bilingual lexical access. Language and Cognitive Processes, 25(5), 669-705. doi.org/10.1080/01690960903474912
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