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The materials in this OSF archive accompany the article “Production Practice During Language Learning Improves Comprehension” published by Elise Hopman and Maryellen MacDonald in the journal Psychological Science. Journal article (restricted access) can be found here: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797618754486?journalCode=pssa Accepted manuscript (open access) can be found here: http://lcnl.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/HopmanMacDonaldInPress.pdf A press release by UW Madison aimed to explain our findings to a broader audience can be found here: https://news.wisc.edu/how-talking-more-can-make-you-better-at-listening-to-foreign-languages/ **Abstract** Language learners often spend more time comprehending than producing a new language. However, memory research suggests reasons to suspect that production practice might provide a stronger learning experience than comprehension practice. We tested the benefits of production during language learning and the degree to which this learning transfers to comprehension skill. We taught participants an artificial language containing multiple linguistic dependencies. Participants were randomly assigned to either a production- or a comprehension-learning condition, with conditions designed to balance attention demands and other known production–comprehension differences. After training, production-learning participants outperformed comprehension-learning participants on vocabulary comprehension and on comprehension tests of grammatical dependencies, even when we controlled for individual differences in vocabulary learning. This result shows that producing a language during learning can improve subsequent comprehension, which has implications for theories of memory and learning, language representations, and educational practices. Stimuli/experiment and data/analyses are uploaded here on OSF. This work was also presented at the 2017 CUNY conference for human sentence processing, and the 'CUNY' folder contains presentation slides, a video recording of the talk and the full abstract. Video of CUNY talk can also be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDgpytkaaR4&feature=youtu.be
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