Examining the generalizability of research findings from archival data
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Description: The present initiative examined systematically, for the first time, the extent to which a large set of archival research findings generalizes across contexts. We repeated the key analyses for 29 original strategic management effects in the same context (direct reproduction) as well as 52 novel time periods and geographies. 44.83% of the reproductions returned results matching the original reports, together with 54.76% of tests in different spans of years and 40% of tests in novel geographies (with some original findings associated with multiple new tests). Reproducibility was the best predictor of generalizability— given that a finding was directly reproducible, there was an 84.21% probability that it would emerge in other available time periods and 57.14% in other geographies. Overall, only limited empirical evidence emerged of context sensitivity. In a forecasting survey, independent scientists were able to anticipate which effects would find support in tests in new samples.
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