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<p>In a sample of 23 adolescents aged 12-18 (Mean=14.1), the thinkSMART program was found to improve parent-rated EFs in the following areas (p&lt;.05): shifting, emotion regulation, initiation, working memory, planning, organization and self-monitoring. We were interested in examining whether individual differences in motivation, as assessed on parent-report questionnaire, was associated with greater improvements following the program. Regression analyses indicated that greater changes in motivation (that is, improvements in motivation) were associated with more improvement in the following areas of EF: Inhibition, shifting, emotion regulation, working memory, planning, self-monitoring, and overall executive functioning. In fact, even when controlling for baseline levels of motivation in the regression model, increased motivation from pre- to post-thinkSMART intervention continued to be associated with changes in areas of: task initiation, working memory, planning, and overall executive functioning. In each of these areas except for task initiation, baseline motivation was no longer associated with outcome once the effect of change in motivation was included in the model. These results suggest that baseline motivation is important for intervention success, but highlight the idea that teens who were able to recruit greater motivation throughout the course of the intervention were more likely to show improvements in EF.</p>
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