White perceivers underestimate pain expressed by Black (vs. White) faces. In three studies, we examined if this bias could be reduced by motivating individuation, either via task framing or direct instruction. While individuation reduced overall thresholds for seeing pain on Black faces, racial bias in pain perception remained. Individuation alone may not be sufficient to eliminate this disparity. Drain_SPSP2021.mp4 <https://drive.google.com/file/d/1SnfT5K9IU7GxE6djD3IFrFkkO-KO5Pp9/view?usp=drive_web>
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