**Background/Aim**: Economic evaluations of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and related interventions have increased over the past two decades. Many of these studies have estimated the costs and economic benefits of interventions targeting use and misuse of alcohol, cannabis, opiates, and illicit substances, which are associated with numerous personal and social consequences such as unemployment, crime, emergency department visits, and HIV/HCV transmission. This study assembles and synthesizes the past two decades of economic evaluation evidence describing the benefits and costs of SUD treatment across 5 main outcome domains: healthcare utilization, criminal activity, criminal justice, productivity, and social services. Estimates of total economic benefits and economic benefits per outcome domain are presented for unique treatment/intervention modalities. This provides an update to McCollister and French 2003, which summarized economic benefits of substance use disorder (SUD) interventions published prior to 2003.
**Methods**: Authors searched for peer-reviewed literature published after 2003 using numerous databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, EconLit, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Google Scholar. Studies were included if they reported the monetary value of intervention outcomes using cost, cost effectiveness or cost benefit approaches. Estimates of economic benefits were extracted and summarized by intervention type for all included outcome domains. Summary cost estimates were adjusted using the US Consumer Price Index (CPI) to reflect the average 12-month benefits in 2020 US dollars.
**Results**: Fifteen studies were included in this review. Total benefits and domain-specific benefits varied substantially across studies depending on analytical approaches, time frame, and other methodological factors. The economic benefits from reduced criminal activity outweighed all other outcome domains due to the high societal cost of crime. Therefore, many studies found that health services utilization increased following intervention and did not generate positive economic benefits. Few studies examined economic benefits associated with reduced social services, improved productivity, and reduced accidents.
**Conclusions**: This study serves as an important resource for policy makers, clinicians, and researchers as they design, implement, and evaluate future interventions for SUD.
Erminia Fardone, PhD
Division of Health Services Research and Policy
Department of Public Health Sciences
University of Miami - Miller School of Medicine
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