## **Identification and testing of target measures** ## As part of the larger project goal to understand the mechanism through which stress effects adherence behaviors described above, the current study will focus on validating our outcome measures of temporal discounting, self-efficacy, and executive control by adapting them to the Kenyan context. Prior to the validation study, our measures will undergo: - Translation and backtranslation from English to Swahili to adapt to the local language - Cognitive debriefing sessions with 16 respondents to test comprehension After finalizing questionnaires and behavioral tasks based on the qualitative data, candidate measures will be tested in a lab study with 500 respondents at the Busara Center for Behavioral Economics. All participants will answer questionnaires and perform all tasks on each of two occasions, which will allow us to compute the correlations both across tasks and across time. During analysis, we will assess construct validity, content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal reliability of each measure to determine adaptability. Our goal is to generate a taxonomy of validated assays for key psychological constructs related to stress that can be used for further research in psychology and health behavior in Kenya. ## **Measures To Be Tested & Validated** ## *Temporal Discounting:* - Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (Strathman et al., 1994) - Deferment of Gratification Scale (Ray & Najman, 1986) - Convex Time Budgets Task: Gains (based on Andreoni & Sprenger, 2012) & Losses - Multiple Price List: Gains (based on Andersen, 2006) & Losses - Internally-developed Effort Discounting task - Risk task (based on Eckel & Grossman, 2002) *Self-Efficacy:* - Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995) - Mastery Scale (Pearlin & Schooler, 1978) - Internally-developed Self-Efficacy task *Executive Control:* - Behavior Rating Inventory for Executive Function of Adults: BRIEF-A (Gioia et al., 2000; Roth et al., 2013) - Stroop Arrows Task (based on Stroop, 1935) - Tower of London Task (Shallice, 1982)
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