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Artificial intelligence (AI)-generated clinical advice is becoming more prevalent in healthcare. However, the impact of AI-generated advice on physicians’ decision-making is underexplored. In this study, physicians received X-rays with correct diagnostic advice and were asked to make a diagnosis, rate the advice’s quality, and judge their own confidence. We manipulated whether the advice came with or without a visual annotation on the X-rays and whether it was labeled as coming from an AI or a human radiologist. Overall, receiving annotated advice from an AI resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy. Physicians rated the quality of AI advice higher than human advice. Neither manipulation had strong effects on participants’ confidence. Importantly, the results varied among task experts and non-task experts, with only the latter considerably benefiting from correct explainable AI advice. These findings raise important considerations for the deployment of diagnostic advice in healthcare
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