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**Module Descritiption** What are p-values? What are confidence intervals? What are effect sizes? How should we interpret statistical significance and what is the best way to convey the meaning of a result? How is our interpretation of a result affected by sample size? **Learning Objectives** **Readings** 1. Cohen, J. (1994). [The earth is round (p<.05)][1]. *American Psychologist*, *49*, 997-1003. 2. Johansson, T. (2011). [Hail the impossible: p-values, evidence, and likelihood][2]. *Scandinavian Journal of Psychology*, *52*, 113-125. (focus on pages 113-120. skim the rest if interested). 3. Cumming, G. (2014). [The new statistics: Why and how][3]. *Psychological Science*, *25*, 7-29. **Demonstrations** 1. [Watch the dance of the *p*-values][4] 2. [Run simulations like those in the dance of the *p*-values][5] 3. [How the dance of *p*-values varies with sample size][6] **Assignments** 1. [*p*-value (mis)interpretation search][7] 2. [Visualizing *p*-value distributions][8] [1]: http://content.apa.org/record/1995-12080-001 [2]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077903 [3]: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0956797613504966 [4]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ez4DgdurRPg [5]: https://researchutopia.wordpress.com/2013/11/10/understanding-p-values-via-simulations/ [6]: http://daniellakens.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-probability-of-p-values-as-function.html [7]: https://osf.io/mnzdq/ [8]: https://osf.io/agu3t/