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**These guidelines are made available under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license ( If there are any queries contact the lead authors Jade Pickering and Marta Topor (details are on our website** **Please do cite the guidelines with the appropriate doi from this OSF page if you use them**: Topor, M., Pickering, J. S., Barbosa Mendes, A., Bishop, D. V. M., Büttner, F. C., Henderson, E. L., … Westwood, S. J. (2022). Non-Interventional, Reproducible, and Open (NIRO) Systematic Review guidelines v1.1. **Contents:** * [Pre-registration guidance](#pre-registration-guidance) * [Protocols and Publications Using NIRO-SR](#Protocols-and-Publications-Using-NIRO-SR) * [Release Notes](#release-notes) ### Non-Interventional, Reproducible, and Open (NIRO) Systematic Reviews The NIRO guidelines for systematic reviews aim to fill a gap in evidence synthesis. To date, much of the focus of systematic reviews has been on interventional research, particularly in clinical and health settings. We aimed to provide a set of guidelines addressing this unmet need, which have now been released. The guidelines consist of two parts: * **Part A:** Preparing the Protocol for Pre-Registration * **Part B:** Writing the Review The guidelines are available here in .pdf: ### Pre-registration guidance #### Why should you pre-register your protocol? Pre-registration is becoming the new standard practice among many disciplines. When registered, your protocol is time-stamped and it can be kept private until the publication of your finalised manuscript. Pre-registering your protocol constrains biases and questionable research practices (such as selective reporting) that can undermine robust research synthesis. When the protocol is made public, it enhances the discoverability of your work and helps others to evaluate the quality of your review. You may also consider submitting your protocol to a journal in the format of a [registered report]( so that editors may decide whether to publish your review before the outcomes are known. #### When should you pre-register your protocol? You must pre-register your protocol before conducting the final search and extracting the records. Initial scoping searches which may inform your final search strategy can be conducted before pre-registration. #### Where can you pre-register your protocol? It is your decision to choose the platform to pre-register your protocol. The most commonly used open-source platforms include: * Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) - a platform designed for pre-registering systematic reviews. * Open Science Framework (OSF) - a platform which hosts research materials including pre-registrations, pre-prints, data and supplementary materials. #### What if you need to make changes after the protocol has been pre-registered? Any changes that need to be made after pre-registration (for example, you decided to change the data management software) must be reported and justified in the Transparency section of your review. If you realise that the initial protocol needs significant changes you should consider updating your pre-registration. ### Protocols and Publications Using NIRO-SR #### Pre-registrations * [The role of orthographic neighbourhood effects in lateralised lexical decision: A systematic review and meta-analysis.]( * [Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR): A systematic review of empirical studies.]( * [Interactive brains: A systematic review and meta-analysis of methodological factors in hyperscanning studies in social contexts]( * [A Systematic Review of Fear Learning in Adolescence]( #### Completed Thesis * [Folk conceptions of free will: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of psychological research]( ## Release Notes ### NIRO-SR v1.1 <b>[pdf]( </b> This is the release to accompany the NIRO-SR manuscript following reviewer comments. - Items A12 and A13 were switched in order - We clarified when to pre-register your Protocol (Part A: Search Strategy) - We added more information on publication bias (Item A21) - We added more information on heterogeneity (A23) - Minor text changes for clarification ### NIRO-SR v1 This is the release to accompany the pre-print. We don't expect any major updates unless significant flaws are discovered. Happy reviewing! ### NIRO v0.1.1 Minor fix: * Added CC-BY license and citation information to the document for ease of understanding * On 06/09/2020 this was updated again because only the title page said v0.1.1 whilst the rest of the document mistakenly still said "v0.1.0". Fixed! ### NIRO v0.1 * Our first release!
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