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Initial research on Type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a brief monetary choice questionnaire showed T2D individuals who discount the future have worse metabolic control than those who delay gratification (Reach et al., 2011).
T2D (Vanhanen et al., 1997, Kanaya et al., 2004, Yaffe et al., 2004) and risk for T2D (Vanhanen et al., 1997) are associated with increased risk of executive dysfunction. This association suggests one of two possibilities: (1) diabetes causes a decline in executive function, or (2) inadequate executive function contributes to obesity and then diabetes. In either case, the relationship between executive function and both obesity and diabetes can present challenges in adhering to behavioral and medical therapies (Smith et al., 2011, Primožič et al., 2012). Poor planning, low working memory, cognitive inflexibility, poor attention to detail in combination with excessive DD can lead to weight gain and poor metabolic outcomes. We will measure a number of executive functions to understand the unique contributions of executive dysfunction including the relationship between DD, prediabetic self-management and medication adherence (Insel et al., 2006).