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## Examples of Large-Scale Replications ## - [Reproducibility Project][1] - [Many Labs Projects][2] - [Collaborative Research and Education Project (for Undergrads)][3] - [Red Card Study] [4] - [Pipeline Project] [5] - [Registered Replication Reports at *PPS*] [6] ## Lists of Individual Replications ## - [Psych File Drawer][7] - [Curate Science][8] - [Etienne LeBel's List][9] ## Discussions About Replications ## #### History & Philosophy #### - [Feynman, 1974, Cargo Cult lecture][10] - [Popper, 1935,1959, Logic of Scientific Discovery, pp. 23, 81][11] #### General #### - [APA Monitor Article on Replication][12] - [Asendorpf et al., 2013] [13] - [Brandt et al., 2014] [14] - [Funder et al., 2013] [15] - [Campbell et al., 2014] [16] - [Schmidt, 2009] [17] - [Valentine et al., 2011][18] - [Lykken, 1968] [19] - [Fetterman & Sassenberg, 2015] [20] - [Goodman et al., 2016][21] - [Kahneman Daisey Chain idea] [22] - [Makel et al., 2012] [23] - [Bonett, 2012] [24] - [Laws, 2016] [25] - [Dreber et al., 2015] [26] - [Crandall & Sherman, 2016] [27] - [H├╝ffmeier, Mazei, & Schultze, 2016][28] #### Pro-Replication #### - [LeBel et al.][29] - [Simons, 2014][30] - [LeBel, 2015] [31] - [Kraus, 2015] [32] - [Roberts, 2015] [33] - [Roberts, 2016] [34] #### Cautions About Replication #### - [Stroebe & Strack, 2014][35] - [Cesario, 2014][36] - [Schwarz & Clore, 2016][37] - [Coyne, 2016][38] - [Fabrigar & Wegener, 2016][39] - [Gilbert et al., 2016][40] - [Baumeister, 2016][41] - [Finkel et al., 2015] [42] - [Kahneman, 2014] [43] - [Barsalou, 2016] [44] - [Rotello et al., 2015] [45] - [Schmidt & Oh, 2016] [46] - [MacElreath & Smaldino, 2015][47] #### Statistical Issues - [Anderson & Maxwell, 2016] [48] - [Maxwell et al., 2015][49] - [Simonsohn, 2015] [50] - [Etz & Vandekerckhove, 2016] [51] - [Lakens, 2014] [52] - [Lakens & Evers, 2014] [53] - [Kashy et al., 2009] [54] - [Verhagen & Wagenmakers, 2014][55] - [Wagenmakers et al., 2016][56] ## Journals That Support Replications ## - Many open-access journals (e.g. [PLoS ONE][57], [Frontiers][58]) - [Collabra][59] - [Perspectives on Psychological Science][60] - [Journal of Personality and Social Psychology][61] - [Journal of Experimental Psychology: General][62] - [Archives of Scientific Psychology][63] - [Journal of Research in Personality][64] - [Social Psychological and Personality Science][65] - [Psychological Science][66] - [Judgment and Decision Making][67] - [Journal of Experimental Social Psychology][68] - [Psychonomic Bulletin & Review][69] ## Major Obstacles ## - Incentive structure (e.g., no incentives to execute & report internal direct replications; new badge discussed to help in this regard) - Lack of outlets - Negative reactions to replication attempts - Lack of details about original procedures - Challenges with certain designs (e.g., long-term longitudinal research, hard to reach populations) ## Things We Can Do To Promote Replication ## - Carefully describe our own studies so they can be replicated - Strive to be explicit about boundary conditions in our own reports - Archive research materials and data - Do replications (make them more normative) - Involve undergraduates - Make honors projects meaningful - Organize innovative replication studies - Pipeline Project ## Best Practices ## - Which replications to attempt - Replicate work that *should* replicate, not just work you expect to fail - Replicate your colleagues' work - Replicate studies that are important for your work - Replicate hard to conduct research - Preregister attempts - Work with original authors - Carefully consider sample size - Original effects are likely to be overestimates - Plan for high power - Consider sequential analysis - Carefully consider criteria for evaluating replication - Significant result - Significant result in meta-analysis with original effects - Original result outside confidence interval of new study - New result outside confidence interval of old study - Bayesian approaches - Simonsohn's "Small Telescopes" approach - Document all known discrepancies with original study - Be careful about tone - Commit to disseminating regardless of outcome ## Specific Goals for This Conference ## - Do we need a better framework for classifying replication attempts (e.g., "exact" vs. "direct" vs. "conceptual")?; See [here][70] for a recently proposed replication taxonomy - Do we need a review article summarizing objections and responses? - Do we need a review article summarizing best practices for replication studies? 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