Collaborative Flashcard Use Improves Learning Efficiency and Metacognitive Accuracy

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Testing boosts long-term memory relative to restudying (Bjork, 1975). Although using flashcards is regarded as a potent form of self-testing, little is known about conditions that affect flashcards’ effectiveness. One factor may be whether one uses flashcards in pairs or alone. Participants were randomly assigned to learn difficult vocabulary individually or in pairs. In the paired condition, one ...


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