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We introduce the notion of a data-first design study which is triggered by the acquisition of real-world data instead of specific stakeholder analysis questions. We propose an adaptation of the design study methodology framework to provide practical guidance and to aid transferability to other data-first design processes. We discuss opportunities and risks by reflecting on two of our own data-first design studies. We review 64 previous design studies and identify 16 of them as edge cases with characteristics that may indicate a data-first design process in action.