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Description: This page contains supplementary material for the manuscript "Sex-specific relation of urinary kisspeptin with developmental measures during puberty", including the complete datasets. This manuscript will be made available as a preprint soon. Manuscript's abstract: Kisspeptins are neuropeptides regarded as critical for puberty onset and progression, playing a pivotal role in the reactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in late childhood. Despite their importance, there is a dearth of evidence on how peripheral concentrations of these peptides are related to sexual maturation in humans, specially using non-invasive measures that allow more widespread testing. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we investigated whether peripheral kisspetin concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in two-hour retention midstream urine, are associated with developmental markers in 209 (120 girls) typically developing, 9 to 15-year-old adolescents. Developmental variables were age, self-reported pubertal status using the Pubertal Development Scale, and saliva concentrations of hormones that indicate gonadal (testosterone) and adrenal (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) functioning. Our results showed marked sexual differences in urine kisspeptins (controlled for body mass index and socioeconomic status). While concentrations were similar in both sexes until the age of around 12 years, in males there was a positive linear correlation with all developmental measures thereafter, while in girls, kisspeptin concentrations did not change. Our results are in line with those of previous studies using more invasive methods, such as measuring kisspeptins in blood samples. We conclude that urine kisspeptin concentrations have potential in exploring sex-specific peripheral action of these peptides.

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