Fitness Consequences of Polymorphic Inversions in the Zebra Finch Genome

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Description: Background: Inversion polymorphisms constitute an evolutionary puzzle: they should increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic individuals, but still they are widespread in some taxa. Some insect species have evolved mechanisms to reduce the cost of embryo mortality, but humans have not. In birds, a detailed analysis is missing although intraspecific inversion polymorphisms are regarded as common. In Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), two polymorphic inversions are known cytogenetically and we set out to detect these two and potentially additional inversions using genomic tools and study their effects on embryo mortality and other fitness-related and morphological traits. Results: Using whole-genome SNP data, we screened 939 wild zebra finches for polymorphic inversions and describe four large (12–63 Mb) intraspecific inversion polymorphisms with allele frequencies close to 50%. Using additional data from 5,229 birds and almost 9,764 eggs from wild and three captive zebra finch populations, we show that only the largest inversions increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic males, with surprisingly small effect sizes. We test for a heterozygote advantage on other fitness components, but find no evidence for heterosis for any of the inversions. Yet, we find strong additive effects on several morphological traits. Conclusions: The mechanism that has carried the derived inversion-haplotypes to such high allele frequencies remains elusive. It appears that selection has effectively minimized the costs associated with inversions in zebra finches. The highly skewed distribution of recombination events towards the chromosome ends in zebra finches and other Estrildid species may function to minimize crossovers in the inverted regions.

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Supplementary data for Knief U, Hemmrich-Stanisak G, Wittig M, Franke A, Griffith SC, Kempenaers B, Forstmeier W 2016: Fitness Consequences of Polymorphic Inversions in the Zebra Finch Genome We uploaded genotype (SNP-calls HiSeq 2000 pooled sequencing, Illumina Infinium iSelect HD Custom BeadChip SNP-genotypes, Sequenom tagging-SNP-genotypes) and phenotype (morphology, embryo mortality, fitness, ...

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