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This study aims to develop and explain the findings we got from two former studies in this research line, of which Study 1 suggested that self-persuasion works better for interdependent people for increasing their risk perception and negative attitudes towards smoking; while direct persuasion works better for independent people. Study 2 which used another paradigm to induce ones’ self-persuasion and direct persuasion did not replicate the results from Study 1, while the main effect of persuasion on smoking risk perception was found. Given the inconsistent results of Study 1 and Study 2, the influence of self-construal (i.e., independence and interdependence) on persuasion needs to be clarified in future studies. Therefore Study 3 will be conducted. This study is twofold. First it combines the 4 conditions in Study 1 and Study 2, aiming to figure out whether the different results come from two different paradigms used in these two studies, that is, different task types. Furthermore, measurements of self-efficacy, psychological reactance, cognitive effort, task involvement and persuasiveness will be tested to possibly explain the underlying processes of why the tasks lead to different results. Second, for exploratory reason, we add Power Distance Scale in this study to check whether it works as a moderator between persuasion and smoking-related outcomes.