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Here in we propose the ChatGPT, Generative Artificial Intelligence and Natural Large Language Models for Accountable Reporting and Use Guidelines (CANGARU) initiative to enable cross-discipline consensus on accountable use, disclosure, and guidance for reporting of GAI/GPTs/LLM usage in academia. Working collaboratively with individuals, academic and publishing regulatory organizations will effectively mitigate the potential confusion or conflicting guidance that could occur when multiple groups independently work on the same task. In turn, this will ensure any recommendations are coherent, comprehensive, and universally applicable, promoting responsible usage of this powerful technology. The overall aim of the CANGARU guidelines is to establish commonly shared, cross-discipline best practices for using GAI/GPTs/LLMs in academia as follows: a. The 'DON'T' Criteria List: The 'DON'T' Criteria List will be a comprehensive guideline that aims to ensure ethical and proper use of GAI/GPTs/LLMs in academic research. It will cover each step of the academic process, starting from (but not limited too) generating research hypotheses, study conduct and data analysis (including coding), image creation (see later comment), interpretation of findings, and drafting and reviewing, refining and editing the manuscript. This list will serve as a valuable resource to researchers, providing guidance on what to avoid throughout the various stages of the research process. By identifying and highlighting potential pitfalls and ethical concerns, the 'DON'T' Criteria List will help researchers navigate the use of GAI/GPTs/LLMs responsibly and with integrity. b. Disclosure Criteria List: The Disclosure Criteria List will provide guidance for researchers to transparently disclose their use of GAI/GPTs/LLMs in academic research, improving transparency, accountability, and enabling better assessment of research findings. It emphasizes the importance of what and how to disclose, fostering responsibility and addressing potential risk and limitations associated with this technology. c. Reporting Criteria List: The reporting criteria list will provide a checklist of recommendation to ensure the complete and transparent reporting of GAI/GPTs/LLMs when they are used as interventions in scientific studies. It will consider all the important aspects that should be reported in the scientific manuscript in order to enhance transparency, improve reproducibility, standardize reporting practices, reduce misinterpretation, support peer review and editorial processes, and facilitate research synthesis and knowledge translation.
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