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Abstract: Why are some people more prosocial than others? To address this question we conducted one exploratory study (N = 154) and two confirmatory studies (Ns = 1,239 & 846), investigating if prosocial preferences, as measured by social value orientation (SVO) and HEXACO Honesty-Humility (HH), are related to scales associated with life-history theory, such as socio-sexual orientation (SOI) and risk-taking. SVO and HH were related to SOI with prosocials reporting a more restricted mating strategy, while less prosocial individuals engage in a less restrictive mating strategy, with the effect only being present in males for SVO, and both genders for HH. Both measures were associated with risk-taking for ethical and social risks, but not for non-social risks. We propose that prosocial preferences and personality reflect extended mating strategies, such that one’s optimal prosocial strategy may be dependent on the amount of mating competition an individual faces. In other words, the more investment one puts into mating, the less one invests in cooperation. We will also present a mathematical model based on game theory as proof of concept for this theory, which demonstrates that as the amount of mating competition increases, the payoff for cooperation decreases.