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We employed a randomized, controlled design to investigate the causal effects of mindfulness practice on relationship quality. We also explored the role of partner acceptance as a possible mechanism of change and investigated whether baseline levels of trait mindfulness would moderate intervention effects. One-hundred-and-thirteen participants in a romantic relationship participated in either a low-dose, online mindfulness-based intervention or a psycho-education control intervention for 12 days. Results indicated that general relationship satisfaction and partner acceptance increased for both conditions. However, among participants with relatively low baseline levels of trait mindfulness, relationship satisfaction improved more so in the mindfulness than in the control condition.