Several dual-process theories of evaluative learning posit two distinct implicit (or automatic) and explicit (or controlled) evaluative learning processes. As such, one may like a person explicitly but simultaneously dislike them implicitly. Dissociations between direct measures (e.g., Likert scales), reflecting explicit evaluations, and indirect measures (e.g., Implicit Association Test), reflecting implicit evaluations, support this claim. Rydell et al. (2006) found a striking dissociation when they brief flashed either positive or negative words prior to presenting a photograph of a person was with behavioral information of the opposite valence was presented: IAT scores reflected the valence of the flashed words whereas rating scores reflected the opposite valence of the behavioral information. A recent study, however, suggests that this finding may not be replicable. Given its theoretical importance, we report two new replication attempts (n = 153 recruited in Belgium, Germany and the USA; n = TBD recruited in Hong Kong and the USA).
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