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@[toc](Sampling procedure and sample details for the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study) ## Citation **Please use the following citation for sampling procedure details:** Sibley, C. G. (2009-2024) Sampling procedure and sample details for the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/wgqvy ## Table of demographics by wave ![enter image description here][1] ## Retention Forecasts The probability, p(respond), that each NZAVS participant will complete the next wave is estimated using a simple neural network (a multilayer perceptron with two hidden layers). The neural network was trained using 99,217 cases, which comprised a composite snapshot of the pattern of participant responding and associated demographic data at Wave 09 and Wave 12. From Wave 13 onwards, the model has been used to forecast sample size for the next wave of data collection. The forecast is the simple sum of the probabilities that each participant will respond. These forecasts are posted here on the NZAVS OSF wiki each year directly before data collection begins. The forecasts have proven highly accurate for the purposes of planning expected workload and costing each year. For example, for Wave 13, forecast N = 33,169 and actual n = 32,829; for Wave 14, forecast N = 29,679 and actual n = 30,020. The forecasts have further been validated by binning p(respond) into .01 units and then estimating a regression line predicting the proportion of participants in each .01-unit bin who actually responded once that wave of data collection was completed. If the model is accurate then 1% of participants for whom p(respond)=.01 should respond, 30% of participants for whom p(respond)=.30 should respond, and so forth. The data closely fits this model (Wave 13 R2 = .985, Wave 14 R2 = .992). Given that p(respond) seems to reliably forecast the probability that each participant would respond to the next wave of data collection, it is included as a covariate in the NZAVS dataset from Wave 12 onwards. Wave | N Forecast | N Retained | Forecast Date | ---- | ------------------- | ---------- | ------------- Time 13 | 33,169 | 32,829 | 22-Oct-2021 Time 14 | 29,679 | 30,020 | 21-Sept-2022 Time 15 | 27,654 | | 14-Oct-2023 | Note. N Retained differs from total wave N because the forecast does not include participants who joined the NZAVS that year. ## Time 1 (2009/2010) ### Participants The Time 1 sample included 3,871 women and 2,647 men, and had a mean age of 48.54 years (SD = 15.74). With regard to ethnicity, 5,340 people identified as European, 1,168 as Māori, 280 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 322 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 3.94, SD = 2.78) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 5.06, SD = 2.84) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 49.55, SD = 14.96) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 80,968 (SD = NZD 64,506, median = NZD 70,000). Of the 6,518 people sampled, 2,826 were religious; 4,888 were parents; 4,582 had a romantic partner; 4,537 were employed; and 5,112 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS ran from 01-July-2009 to 14-Oct-2010 and contained responses from 6,518 participants sampled from the 2009 New Zealand electoral roll, who were currently residing in New Zealand (one can be registered to vote in New Zealand but living overseas). The electoral roll is publicly available for scientific research and in 2009 contained 2,986,546 registered voters. This represented all citizens over 18 years of age who were eligible to vote regardless of whether they chose to vote, barring people who had their contact details removed due to specific case-by-case concerns about privacy. The sample frame was spilt into three parts. Sample Frame 1 constituted a sample of 25,000 people from the electoral roll (4,060 respondents). Sample Frame 2 constituted a further 10,000 people from the electoral roll (1,609 respondents). Sample Frame 3 constituted 5,500 people randomly selected from meshblock area units of the country with a high proportion of Māori, Pacific Nations and Asian peoples (671 respondents). All three samples were drawn using a stratified random procedure in which 25,000, 10,000 and 5,500 unique households (postal addresses) were first drawn, and then one person per household was randomly selected. A further 178 people responded but did not provide contact details and so could not be matched to a sample frame. In sum, postal questionnaires were sent to 40,500 registered voters or roughly 1.36% of all registered voters in New Zealand. The overall response rate (adjusting for the address accuracy of the electoral roll and including anonymous responses) was 16.6%. ![Time 1 Histogram][3] Figure 1. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 1 conducted from 01-July-2009 to 14-Oct-2010 (x-axis ranges from October 2009 to October 2010, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 2 (2010/2011) ### Participants The Time 2 wave included 2,736 women and 1,716 men, and had a mean age of 51.47 years (SD = 15.22). With regard to ethnicity, 3,815 people identified as European, 690 as Māori, 161 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 179 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Deprivation (M = 4.90, SD = 2.80) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 53.08, SD = 16.62) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 80,438 (SD = NZD 68,938, median = NZD 68,000). Of the 4,441 people sampled, 1,965 were religious; 3,508 were parents; 3,179 had a romantic partner; 3,033 were employed; and 3,553 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 2 (2010/2011) NZAVS ran from 15-Oct-2010 to 26-Aug-2011 and contained responses from 4,441 participants. The Time 2 (2010/2011) NZAVS retained 4,425 from the initial Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS sample of 6,518 participants, and included an additional 16 respondents who could not be matched to the Time 1 participant database (a retention rate of 67.89% over one year). Participants were posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. Participants who provided an email address were also emailed and invited to complete an online questionnaire if they preferred. ![Time 2 Histogram][4] Figure 2. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 2 conducted from 15-Oct-2010 to 26-Aug-2011 (x-axis ranges from October 2010 to October 2011, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 3 (2011/2012) ### Participants The Time 3 wave included 4,325 women and 2,589 men, with a mean age of 50.95 years (SD = 15.96). With regard to ethnicity, 5,147 people identified as European, 745 as Māori, 177 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 252 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Deprivation (M = 4.64, SD = 2.74) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 55.90, SD = 15.91) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 91,575 (SD = NZD 74,368, median = NZD 78,500). Of the 6,884 people sampled, 2,727 were religious; 5,036 were parents; 4,779 had a romantic partner; 4,926 were employed; and 5,238 were born in New Zealand (education level was not measured at Time 3). ### Sampling Procedure The Time 3 (2011/2012) NZAVS ran from 27-Aug-2011 to 18-Sept-2012 and contained responses from 6,884 participants (3,918 retained from one or more previous wave, 2,966 new additions from booster sampling, and 4 unmatched participants or opt-ins). The Time 3 (2011/2012) NZAVS retained 3,918 from the initial Time 1 national probability sample (a 60.08% retention rate over two years; and a retention rate of 79.49% from the previous year). Participants were posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. Participants who provided an email address were also emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. To boost sample size at Time 3 and compensate for sample attrition, a booster sample was recruited through an unrelated survey posted on the website of a major New Zealand newspaper in 2012. A total of 3,208 participants registered an initial expression of interest in being contacted to participate in the NZAVS via this survey. Participants in this non-random booster sample were emailed an invitation to participate in an online version of the NZAVS, and those who did not respond to the email were also sent a postal version of the questionnaire. A total of 2,966 participants completed the questionnaire when subsequently contacted (92.50%). This yielded a total sample size for the Time 3 (2012) NZAVS of 6,884 (3,918 retained from Time 1, 3 additions retained from opt-ins at Time 2, 2,966 recruited from the newspaper website at Time 3, and 4 opt-ins at Time 3). ![Time 03 Histogram][5] Figure 3. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 3 conducted from 27-Aug-2011 to 18-Sept-2012 (x-axis ranges from October 2011 to October 2012, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 3.5 (2012 mid-year) ### Participants The Time 3.5 wave included 2,897 women and 1,618 men, with a mean age of 49.58 years (SD = 15.71). With regard to ethnicity, 3,968 people identified as European, 434 as Māori, 275 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 164 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Deprivation (M = 4.53, SD = 2.73) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Of the 4,514 people sampled, 1,695 were religious; and 3,438 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 3.5 (2012 mid-year) NZAVS contained responses from 4,514 participants who completed a follow-up online-only questionnaire administered roughly six months following the full Time 3 (2011/2012) questionnaire. The Time 3.5 sample was supplementary to the full Time 3 (2011/2012) NZAVS. The sample frame included those participants who had provided an email address when completing the full Time 3 questionnaire earlier that year, as well as approximately 400-450 Pacific participants who were recruited informally via Pasifika networks. The sample included 1,977 retained participants from the initial Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS random electoral roll sample, 2,113 participants from the non-random online newspaper website sample collected as part of the Time 3 (2011/2012) NZAVS, a further 50 participants online newspaper website sample who has initially indicated but had not responded initially at T3 (but did respond when contacted again at Time 3.5), 197 participants who self-selected into the study or who were unable to be matched to a sample frame, and 177 additional Pacific participants recruited via Pasifika networks who completed a different version of the questionnaire focusing on Pacific identity and wellbeing. ## Time 4 (2012/2013) ### Participants The Time 4 wave included 7,641 women and 4,573 men, with a mean age of 49.59 years (SD = 15.03). With regard to ethnicity, 10,281 people identified as European, 2,025 as Māori, 610 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 619 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 4.68, SD = 2.85) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 5.01, SD = 2.85) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 52.31, SD = 16.29) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 95,583 (SD = NZD 81,338, median = NZD 80,000). Of the 12,179 people sampled, 5,036 were religious; 8,987 were parents; 8,427 had a romantic partner; 8,759 were employed; and 9,593 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 4 (2012/2013) NZAVS ran from 19-Sept-2012 to 16-Sept-2013 and contained responses from 12,179 participants (6,808 retained from one or more previous wave, 5,371 new additions from booster sampling and opt-ins). Informal analysis indicates that opt-ins were often the partners of existing participants. The sample retained 4,054 participants from the initial Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS of 6,518 participants (a retention rate of 62.20% over three years). The sample retained 5,763 participants from the full Time 3 (2011/2012) sample (a retention rate of 83.72% from the previous year). Participants were posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. Participants who provided an email address were also emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Non-respondents were emailed a follow-up reminder email approximately two months later. Three attempts were then made using each provided phone number (typically home and cell phone) to contact non-respondents to encourage participation. These attempts were made on separate days, approximately one week apart. When possible, a phone message was left for each phone number after the third attempt. Participants were also posted a pamphlet outlining recent findings from the study mid-way through the year. Finally, participants were posted a Season’s Greetings from the NZAVS research team, and informed that they had been automatically entered into a bonus seasonal grocery voucher prize draw for a total pool of $NZ 1,000. Participants were informed that the draw would happen automatically, and winners contacted. The Season’s Greetings card also asked participants to contact us (online, email or phone) to let us know if any of their contact details had changed before the prize draw was conducted. These additional materials are presented by Huang, Greaves, and Sibley (2014) in an online NZAVS technical report. To boost sample size at Time 4 and increase sample diversity for subsequent waves, five independent booster samples using different sample frames were also conducted. Booster sampling was conducted without replacement (i.e., all people included in previous sample frames were identified and removed from the electoral roll before generation of the new sample frames). The first sample frame consisted of a randomly selected sample of 20,000 people aged from 18-70 randomly selected from the 2012 New Zealand electoral roll, and who were currently residing in New Zealand (one can be registered to vote in New Zealand but living overseas). A total of 2,429 participants responded to this booster sample (response rate = 12.33% when adjusting for the 98.5% accuracy of the 2012 electoral roll). The second sample frame consisted of a regional booster of 10,000 people aged from 18-70 randomly selected randomly selected from people listed in the 2012 electoral roll who lived in the Auckland region. A total of 890 participants responded to this booster sample (adjusted response rate = 9.04). The Auckland region was oversampled because it is the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse region of the country with an increasing number of Asian and Pacific peoples in particular. The questionnaire used for this Auckland sample was longer than the standard NZAVS questionnaire, and contained additional unrelated questions that are not included in the NZAVS dataset (these related to the use of community facilities). Exit interviews conducted during Time 5 indicated that the longer length of this questionnaire may have contributed to the low response rate in this case. The third sample frame consisted of 3,000 people aged from 18-60 randomly selected randomly selected from the 2012 electoral roll who lived in the Christchurch region. A total of 332 participants responded to this booster sample (adjusted response rate = 11.24%). The Christchurch region was oversampled because it has experienced significant hardship and change due to the Christchurch earthquakes of 2010 and 2011 with many people moving out of the region (Statistics New Zealand, 2013) and problems with mail delivery with some city zones being placed under restricted entry due to safety concerns and considerable infrastructure destroyed. The fourth sample frame consisted of 9,000 respondents selected from meshblock area units across the country that were moderate-to-high in deprivation according to the index developed by Salmond, Crampton and Atkinson (2007). Regions with levels of deprivation were selected using scores on the decile-ranked NZ Deprivation index from 6-10, with 10 being the most deprived. This sample frame used scaled weighting so that people in increasingly deprived regions were increasingly more likely to be selected (with random sampling of people aged from 18-75 randomly selected within regions that had a given level of deprivation). The scaling factor was as follows: ni = nbase * weighti, where nbase = 600, and weighti, ranged from 1 to 5 and increased by 1 for each one-unit increased in deprivation score. Thus, 600 people were randomly selected from regions with a deprivation score of 6, 1,200 people were randomly selected from regions with a deprivation score of 7, and so on. This sampling strategy was designed to increase the representativeness of the sample across regions with different levels of deprivation, as the NZAVS showed increased attrition in increasingly more deprived regions over the first three years of the study. A total of 767 participants responded to this booster sample (adjusted response rate = 8.65%). The fifth sample frame consisted of 9,000 people aged from 18-70 randomly selected randomly selected from those who indicated on the 2012 electoral roll that they were of Māori ethnicity (ethnic affiliation as Māori is listed on the roll, but other ethnic affiliations are not). A total of 689 participants responded to this booster sample (adjusted response rate = 7.78%). The questionnaire administered to the Māori booster sample included additional questions specifically referring to Māori identity. ![Time 04 Histogram][6] Figure 4. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 4 conducted from 19-Sept-2012 to 16-Sept-2013 (x-axis ranges from October 2012 to October 2013, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 5 (2013/2014) ### Participants The Time 5 wave included 11,485 women and 6,804 men, with a mean age of 48.14 years (SD = 14.07). With regard to ethnicity, 15,607 people identified as European, 2,328 as Māori, 625 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 814 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 4.92, SD = 2.82) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.81, SD = 2.79) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 52.94, SD = 16.46) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 101,732 (SD = NZD 81,586, median = NZD 85,000). Of the 18,261 people sampled, 7,107 were religious; 13,343 were parents; 13,065 had a romantic partner; 14,000 were employed; and 14,446 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 5 (2013/2014) NZAVS ran from 17-Sept-2013 to 20-Oct-2014 and contained responses from 18,261 participants (10,504 retained from one or more previous wave, 7,757 new additions from booster sampling and opt-ins). Informal analysis indicates that opt-ins were often the partners of existing participants. The sample retained 3,936 participants from the initial Time 1 (2009) NZAVS of 6,518 participants (a retention rate of 61.84% over four years). The sample retained 9,845 participants from the full Time 4 (2011/2012) sample (a retention rate of 80.84% from the previous year). Participants were posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. Participants who provided an email address were also emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. As described in the Time 4 procedure, we offered a prize draw for participation, non-respondents were emailed and phoned multiple times, and all participants were posted a Season’s Greetings card from the NZAVS research team and informed that they had been automatically entered into a bonus seasonal grocery voucher prize draw. We also posted our yearly pamphlet summarizing key research findings published during the current wave of the study. To boost sample size and increase sample diversity for subsequent waves, two booster samples were also conducted by selecting people from the New Zealand electoral roll. As with previous booster samples, sampling was conducted without replacement (i.e., all people included in previous sample frames were identified and removed from the 2014 roll). The first sample frame consisted of 70,000 people aged from 18-60 randomly selected from the 2014 New Zealand electoral roll, who were currently residing in New Zealand (one can be registered to vote in New Zealand but living overseas). The New Zealand electoral roll contains participants’ date of birth (within a one-year window), and we limited our frame to people who 60 or younger, due to our aim of retaining participants for the following 15 years. A total of 7,487 participants responded to this booster sample (response rate = 10.90% when adjusting for the 98.60% accuracy of the 2014 electoral roll). The second sample frame consisted of 1,500 people who were listed on the electoral roll as being of Māori ancestry, aged between 18-60 years of age, and currently residing in New Zealand. A total of 92 participants responded to this booster sample (response rate = 6.20% adjusting for electoral roll accuracy). ![Time 05 Histogram][7] Figure 5. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 5 conducted from 17-Sept-2013 to 20-Oct-2014 (x-axis ranges from October 2013 to October 2014, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 6 (2014/2015) ### Participants The Time 6 wave included 10,003 women, 5,804 men, and 18 gender non-binary people, with a mean age of 49.83 years (SD = 14.03). With regard to ethnicity, 14,161 people identified as European, 1,977 as Māori, 526 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 684 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.09, SD = 2.80) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.71, SD = 2.76) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 53.73, SD = 16.30) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 104,643 (SD = NZD 88,021, median = NZD 90,000). Of the 15,820 people sampled, 6,277 were religious; 11,743 were parents; 11,672 had a romantic partner; 12,183 were employed; and 12,592 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 6 (2014/2015) NZAVS ran from 21-Oct-2014 to 19-Aug-2015 and contained responses from 15,820 participants (15,742 retained from one or more previous wave or opt-ins). The sample retained 3,728 participants from the initial Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS of 6,518 participants (a retention rate of 57.20% over five years). The sample retained 14,878 participants from the full Time 5 (2013) sample (a retention rate of 81.47% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were then posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. As described in the Time 4 procedure, we offered a prize draw for participation, non-respondents were emailed and phoned multiple times, and all participants were posted a Season’s Greetings card from the NZAVS research team and informed that they had been automatically entered into a bonus seasonal grocery voucher prize draw. We also emailed participants an online pamphlet containing a series of video interviews with the researchers summarizing different research findings. ![Time 06 Histogram][8] Figure 6. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 6 conducted from 21-Oct-2014 to 19-Aug-2015 (x-axis ranges from October 2014 to October 2015, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 7 (2015/2016) ### Participants The Time 7 wave included 8,731 women, 5,199 men, and 17 gender non-binary people; with a mean age of 51.31 years (SD = 13.90). With regard to ethnicity, 12,506 people identified as European, 1,672 as Māori, 427 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 545 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.23, SD = 2.76) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4,70, SD = 2.79) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 54.36, SD = 16.05) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 107,139 (SD = NZD 86,608, median = NZD 90,000). Of the 13,942 people sampled, 5,879 were religious; 10,579 were parents; 10,361 had a romantic partner; 10,643 were employed; and 11,137 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 7 (2015/2016) NZAVS ran from 20-Aug-2015 to 10-Sept-2016 and contained responses from 13,942 participants (13,877 retained from one or more previous wave, 65 opt-ins). The sample retained 3,345 participants from the initial Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS of 6,518 participants (a retention rate of 51.32% over five years). The sample retained 12,550 participants from the full Time 6 (2014/2015) sample (a retention rate of 79.33% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were then posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. As described in the Time 4 procedure, we offered a prize draw for participation, non-respondents were emailed and phoned multiple times, and all participants were posted a Season’s Greetings card from the NZAVS research team and informed that they had been automatically entered into a bonus seasonal grocery voucher prize draw. ![Time 07 Histogram][9] Figure 7. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 7 conducted from 20-Aug-2015 to 10-Sept-2016 (x-axis ranges from October 2015 to October 2016, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 8 (2016/2017) ### Participants The Time 8 wave included 13,726 women, 8,174 men, and 41 gender non-binary people, with a mean age of 50.12 years (SD = 13.93). With regard to ethnicity, 19,478 people identified as European, 2,473 as Māori, 574 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 1,001 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.28, SD = 2.75) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.91, SD = 2.77) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 58.58, SD = 16.59) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 108,600 (SD = NZD 92,086, median = NZD 90,000). Of the 21,936 people sampled, 8,332 were religious; 16,100 were parents; 16,326 had a romantic partner; 17,040 were employed; and 17,348 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 8 (2016/2017) NZAVS ran from 11-Sept-2016 to 12-Aug-2017 and contained responses from 21,936 participants (13,666 retained from one or more previous wave, 8,270 new additions from booster sampling or opt-ins). The sample retained 3,349 participants from the initial Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS of 6,518 participants (a retention rate of 51.38%). The sample retained 11,933 participants from the full Time 7 (2015/2016) sample (a retention rate of 85.59% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were then posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. As described in the Time 4 procedure, we offered a prize draw for participation, non-respondents were emailed and phoned multiple times, and all participants were posted a Season’s Greetings card from the NZAVS research team and informed that they had been automatically entered into a bonus seasonal grocery voucher prize draw. To boost sample size and increase sample diversity for subsequent waves, a booster sample was also conducted by selecting people from the New Zealand electoral roll. As with previous booster samples, sampling was conducted without replacement (i.e., all people included in previous sample frames were identified and removed from the 2016 roll). The sample frame consisted of 80,000 people aged from 18-65 randomly selected from the 2016 New Zealand electoral roll, who were currently residing in New Zealand (one can be registered to vote in New Zealand but living overseas). The New Zealand electoral roll contains participants’ date of birth (within a one-year window), and we limited our frame to people who 65 or younger, due to our aim of retaining participants longitudinally. A total of 7,667 participants responded to this booster sample (response rate = 9.70% when adjusting for the 98.60% accuracy of the 2016 electoral roll). ![Time 08 Histogram][10] Figure 8. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 8 conducted from 11-Sept-2016 to 12-Aug-2017 (x-axis ranges from October 2016 to October 2017, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 9 (2017/2018) ### Participants The Time 9 wave included 10,804 women, 6,246 men, and 25 gender non-binary people; with a mean age of 51.84 years (SD = 13.77). With regard to ethnicity, 15,606 people identified as European, 2,007 as Māori, 466 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 700 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.51, SD = 2.69) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.74, SD = 2.75) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 59.44, SD = 16.33) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 113,643 (SD = NZD 94,417, median = NZD 98,000). Of the 17,072 people sampled, 6,142 were religious; 12,709 were parents; 12,901 had a romantic partner; 13,138 were employed; and 13,591 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 9 (2017/2018) NZAVS ran from 13-Aug-2017 to 30-Oct-2018 and contained responses from 17,072 participants (16,933 retained from one or more previous wave, and 139 unmatched participants or opt-ins). The sample retained 2,771 participants from the initial Time 1 (2009/2010) NZAVS of 6,518 participants (a retention rate of 42.51% over five years). The sample retained 15,786 participants from the full Time 8 (2016/2017) sample (a retention rate of 71.96% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were then posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. We offered a prize draw for participation (five draws each for NZD 1000 grocery vouchers, NZD 5000 total prize pool). All participants were posted a Season’s Greetings card from the NZAVS research team and informed that they had been automatically entered into a bonus seasonal grocery voucher prize draw. The retention rate from Time 8 to Time 9 of 71.96% was lower than the previous wave rate of ~80% achieved in previous few years. We had opted not to phone non-respondents during the Time 9 wave of data collection, and instead decided to let one year pass and then intensify phoning of non-respondents the following year. We decided on this approach in the hope that it might reduce ‘contact fatigue’, and hence increase the recovery rate and give more time (two years) for intermittent and non-respondents to become re-enthused about participating in the study. We thus decided to risk a lower retention rate in Time 9 with the hopes of getting a bounce back in the recovery rate during the following wave of data collection amongst these most hard-to-retain participants (see Satherley et al. 2015, for a detailed analysis of the demographic and individual difference factors predicting retention, non-response and intermittent response). Our decision to reduce the risk of contact fatigue during Time 9 was also compounded by a major telecommunications carrier in New Zealand opting to discontinue their email servers in November 2017. Many of our participants had used these email services, and hence a large number of the emails in our database were rendered invalid. This increased the subsequent load on attempting to contact participants via postal mail and phone until contact could be made and our email database could be updated with participants’ new email addresses. ![Time 09 Histogram][11] Figure 9. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 9 conducted from 13-Aug-2017 to 30-Oct-2018 (x-axis ranges from October 2017 to October 2018, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 10 (2018/2019) ### Participants The Time 10 wave included 30,035 women, 17,816 men, and 112 gender non-binary people; with a mean age of 49.10 years (SD = 13.86). With regard to ethnicity, 42,543 people identified as European, 4,696 as Māori, 1,039 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 2,541 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.32, SD = 2.73) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.77, SD = 2.73) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 54.47, SD = 16.59) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 115,061 (SD = NZD 92,445, median = NZD 100,000). Of the 47,948 people sampled, 17,141 were religious; 33,631 were parents; 34,218 had a romantic partner; 38,024 were employed; and 37,126 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 10 (2018/2019) NZAVS ran from 18-June-2018 to 30-Sept-2019 and contained responses from 47,948 participants (18,027 retained from one or more previous wave, 29,921 new additions from booster sampling or opt-ins). The sample retained 2,968 participants from the Time 1 (2009/2010) sample (a retention rate of 45.54%). The sample retained 14,050 participants from Time 9 (2017/2018; a retention rate of 82.30% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were then posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. We offered a prize draw for participation (five draws each for NZD 1000 grocery vouchers, NZD 5000 total prize pool). All participants were posted a Season’s Greetings card from the NZAVS research team and informed that they had been automatically entered into a bonus seasonal grocery voucher prize draw. Participants were also emailed an eight-page newsletter about the study. To boost sample size and increase sample diversity for subsequent waves, a booster sample was conducted by selecting people from the New Zealand electoral roll. As with previous booster samples, sampling was conducted without replacement (i.e., people included in previous sample frames were identified and removed from the 2018 roll). The sample frame consisted of 325,000 people aged from 18-65 randomly selected from the 2018 New Zealand electoral roll, who were currently residing in New Zealand (one can be registered to vote in New Zealand but living overseas). The electoral roll contained ~3,250,000 registered voters. The New Zealand electoral roll contains participants’ date of birth (within a one-year window), and we limited our frame to people who 65 or younger, due to our aim of retaining participants longitudinally. We concurrently advertised the survey on Facebook via a$5000 paid promotion of a link to a YouTube video describing the NZAVS and the large booster sample we were conducting. The advertisement targeted men and women aged 18-65+ who lived in New Zealand and ran for 14 days. This paid promotion reached 147,296 people, with 4,721 link clicks (i.e., clicking to watch the video), according to Facebook. The goal of the paid promotion was twofold: (a) to increase name recognition of the NZAVS during the period in which questionnaires were being posted, and (b) to help improve retention by potentially reaching previous participants who happened to see the advertisement. A total of 29,293 participants who were contained in our sample frame completed the questionnaire (response rate = 9.20% when adjusting for the 98.20% accuracy of the 2018 electoral roll). A further 628 participants completed the questionnaire, but were unable to be matched to our sample frame (for example, due to a lack of contact information) or were opt-ins. Informal analysis indicates that opt-ins were often the partners of existing participants. ![Time 10 Histogram][12] Figure 10. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 10 conducted from 18-June-2018 to 30-Sept-2019 (x axis ranges from October 2018 to October 2019, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 11 (2019/2020) ### Participants The Time 11 wave included 27,229 women, 15,266 men, and 192 gender non-binary people, with a mean age of 52.05 years (SD = 13.87). With regard to ethnicity, 39,525 people identified as European, 4,314 as Māori, 1,148 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 1900 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.66, SD = 2.67) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.75, SD = 2.72) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 59.93, SD = 16.19) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 117,971 (SD = NZD 109,738, median = NZD 100,000). Of the 42,681 people sampled, 14,375 were religious; 31,213 were parents; 31,107 had a romantic partner; 31,856 were employed; and 33,367 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 11 wave was conducted during COVID-19 pandemic, and ran from 01-Oct-2019 to 30-Sept-2020. Procedures thus differed in that there was an increased focus on online deliver using email reminders and extensive Facebook advertising, no Christmas card, and incomplete phoning of non-respondents. The Time 11 (2019/2020) NZAVS contained responses from 42,681 participants (36,527 retained from one or more previous wave, 6,154 new additions from booster sampling or opt-ins). The sample retained 2,506 participants from the Time 1 (2009/2010) sample (a retention rate of 38.45%). The sample retained 34,783 participants from Time 10 (2018; a retention rate of 72.54% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were then posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. A second reminder email was sent approximately four months following the first email attempt. We offered a prize draw for participation (five draws each for NZD 1000 grocery vouchers, NZD 5000 total prize pool). Participants were also emailed an eight-page newsletter about the study. As in past years, three attempts were made to phone non-respondents using each available cell and landline number. However, due to the university closure during COVID-19 lockdowns, phoning attempts were made for only 54.00% of the phoning pool (11,687 from a total of 21,636 non-respondents who provided at least one phone number). Two additional forms of recruitment were also introduced during Time 11. The first was a large information box in the questionnaire (taking a full page on the paper version), which asked people: ‘Do you have a partner who would also like to join the NZAVS?’ with additional details for how partners might join the study (see questionnaire for the full text). The second was a Facebook/Instagram advertisement. The advertisement targeted men and women aged 18-65+ who lived in New Zealand and ran from and 4th April 2020 – 4th July 2020 (overlapping with New Zeeland’s first lockdown period and recovery), and again from 18th August 2020 – 4th September (during the second Auckland lockdown). Given the unprecedented nature of the COVID-19 lockdowns, we thought it important to maximise sampling during these periods. The goal of the Facebook/Instagram advertisement was threefold: (a) to increase name recognition of the NZAVS and remind people to complete the paper/online version already posted/emailed to them, (b) to help improve retention by potentially reaching previous lost participants who happened to see the advertisement, and (c) to recruit new participants (and also the partners of existing participants) while people were at home with some possibly having more free time during lockdown. This last goal was indirect and not explicitly stated it in the advertisement. The Facebook/Instagram advertisement read as follows: “Participate in the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. Complete the 2020 Questionnaire online” with the body of text: “If you are part of the NZAVS, but have not heard from us in the last year, then please consider completing the 2020 questionnaire online. The study is more important than ever as we aim to understand the impact of COVID-19 on mental health, wellbeing and resilience in our communities. Note that the advertisement referred to the year 2020 as this was conducted early in that year, as part of the Time 11 (2019 wave. We wish you all the best at this time and hope you keep well and stay safe.” This paid promotion reached 883,969 people, with 37,850 link clicks (i.e., clicking the link for the Qualtrics survey) according to Facebook. A total of 6,106 people continued complete the questionnaire and provide full contact details, and were thus included in the dataset (4,734 were new participants opting in to the study, and 1,372 were previously ‘lost’ participants). ![Time 11 Histogram][13] Figure 11. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 11 conducted from 01-Oct-2019 to 30-Sept-2020 (x axis ranges from October 2019 to October 2020, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 12 (2020/2021) ### Participants The Time 12 wave included 24,537 women, 13,814 men, and 201 gender non-binary people; with a mean age of 53.45 years (SD = 13.69). With regard to ethnicity, 35,543 people identified as European, 3,374 as Māori, 857 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 1,558 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.81, SD = 2.63) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.70, SD = 2.73) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2014). Socioeconomic status (M = 59.92, SD = 16.40) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 120,782 (SD = NZD 105,085, median = NZD 100,000). Of the 38,550 people sampled, 12,766 were religious; 28,706 were parents; 28,267 had a romantic partner; 29,303 were employed; and 30,269 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 12 (2020/2021) wave was conducted during COVID-19 pandemic, and ran from 01-Aug-2020 to 30-Sept-2021. For most of this wave, New Zealand successfully managed it COVID-19 eradication policy. Toward the end of this Wave (on August 17) the delta variant was detected and New Zealand moved into lockdown. This lasted for the remainder of the wave, and thus resulted in cancellation of the annual newsletter and Christmas cards, and incomplete phoning of non-respondents. The Time 12 (2020/2021) NZAVS contained responses from 38,550 participants (38,322 retained from one or more previous wave, 228 opt-ins). The sample retained 2,428 participants from the Time 1 (2009/2010) sample (a retention rate of 37.25%). The sample retained 33,318 participants from Time 11 (2018/2019; a retention rate of 78.06% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were then posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later (note that the final postal reminder was mailed 2 or 3 days before the nationwide lockdown). We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. A second reminder email was sent approximately four months following the first email attempt. We offered a prize draw for participation (five draws each for NZD 1000 grocery vouchers, NZD 5000 total prize pool). ![Time 12 Histogram][14] Figure 12. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 12 conducted from 01-Aug-2020 to 30-Sept-2021 (x axis ranges from October 2020 to October 2021, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 13 (2021/2022) ### Participants The Time 13 wave included 21,803 women, 12,119 men, and 220 gender non-binary people, with a mean age of 54.89 years (SD = 13.66). With regard to ethnicity, 31,534 people identified as European, 3,036 as Māori, 594 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 1,231 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.94, SD = 2.57) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.69, SD = 2.73) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2017). Socioeconomic status (M = 60.39, SD = 16.25) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 125,472 (SD = NZD 110,457, median = NZD 100,000). Of the 34,131 people sampled, 10,948 were religious; 25,369 were parents; 24,693 had a romantic partner; 25,147 were employed; and 26,830 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 13 (2021/2022) wave ran from 01-Oct-2021 to 20-Sept-2022, beginning eight weeks after New Zealand went into a nationwide lockdown following detection of the COVID-19 delta variant in the community. During this time vaccination rates for COVID-19 were massively scaled up, and New Zealand ultimately moved to managing COVID-19 in the community. The Time 13 sample contained responses from 34,131 participants (32,829 retained from one or more previous wave, 1,301 opt-ins). The sample retained 2185 participants from the Time 1 (2009/2010) sample (a retention rate of 33.52%). The sample retained 28,640 participants from Time 12 (2020/2021; a retention rate of 74.29% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. A final email remainder was then sent two months following that. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. We offered a prize draw for participation (five draws each for NZD 1000 grocery vouchers, NZD 5000 total prize pool). Participants were also emailed an eight-page newsletter about the study. The Time 13 (2021/2022) sampling procedure introduced two new procedures: (a) a pre-notification Facebook/Instagram advertisement, and (b) a shortened online questionnaire employing a planned missing design sent to non-respondents. The Facebook/Instagram pre-notification advertisement was identical to that used during the Time 11 wave, just referring to the 2021 year. The advertisement ran for one month before the first email survey invitations were sent to existing participants (four weeks after the country entered lockdown), and then ran for a further two weeks. The advertisement was framed as ‘did we miss you this year?’ despite being shown at the start of Time 13 wave (keep in mind that sampling is rolling throughout each year, with the aim to re-contact each person approximately one year after their last completion). The goal of the Facebook advertisement was to (a) increase name recognition of the NZAVS (and hence hopefully the retention rate) prior to sending initial email and postal letters inviting people to complete the annual questionnaire, (b) to reach previous lost participants who happened to see the advertisement, and (c) to recruit new participants (and also the partners of existing participants) while people were at home with some possibly having more free time during lockdown. The Facebook/Instagram advertisement read as follows: “Participate in the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. Complete the 2021 Questionnaire online” with the body of text: “If you are part of the NZAVS, but have not heard from us in the last year, then please consider completing the 2020 questionnaire online. The study is more important than ever as we aim to understand the impact of COVID-19 on mental health, wellbeing and resilience in our communities. We wish you all the best at this time and hope you keep well and stay safe.” This paid promotion reached 249,767 people, with 9,715 link clicks (i.e., clicking the link for the Qualtrics survey) according to Facebook. In addition, 1,301 people opted in to the study via the Facebook advertisement and completed the questionnaire for the first time. The most commonly stated reason for participant withdrawal in past years has been that the questionnaire was too long. In an attempt to reduce attrition, a shortened version of the online questionnaire was employed when emailing the invitation to participants for whom any of the following were true: (a) the neural network forecast their probability of responding to be less than .50, (b) they had not responded during the previous wave, (c) they had provided only a partial completion during the last wave, or (d) they had participated in last wave, but did not respond to the initial email invitation for the current wave. The shortened questionnaire employed a planned missing design that randomly presented only 68% of the Likert questions (those on a 1-7 strongly disagree to strongly agree scale) and 68% of the personality-style items (those on a 1-7 scale from very inaccurate to very accurate scale) included in the full T13 questionnaire. All other rating scales (e.g., warmth ratings, satisfaction ratings) and demographic questions were presented in full. ![Time 13 Histogram][15] Figure 13. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 13 conducted from 01-Oct-2021 to 20-Sept-2022 (x axis ranges from October 2021 to October 2022, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 14 (2022/2023) ### Participants The Time 14 wave included 21,275 women, 12,154 men, and 294 gender non-binary people, with a mean age of 54.11 years (SD = 15.70). With regard to ethnicity, 30,998 people identified as European, 3,099 as Māori, 589 were Pacific Nations peoples, and 1,279 identified with an Asian ethnic group. Note that people could identify with multiple ethnic groups (and hence be counted multiple times). Education (M = 5.86, SD = 2.59) was coded using the New Zealand Qualifications Authority scheme, which ranged from 0 (none) to 10 (doctoral degree or equivalent). Deprivation (M = 4.70, SD = 2.73) was coded using the New Zealand Deprivation index for the meshblock level (approx. 100 person-sized geographic units), with a decile rank from 1 (low) 10 (high; Atkinson, Salmond & Crampton, 2019). Socioeconomic status (M = 60.03, SD = 16.47) was scored from 10 (low) to 90 (high) using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index, which assigned a score based on occupation and derived from census data (Fahy, Lee, & Milne, 2017). Mean household income was NZD 129,002 (SD = NZD 141,508, median = NZD 100,000). Of the 33,722 people sampled, 10,923 were religious; 24,198 were parents; 23,503 had a romantic partner; 23,644 were employed; and 26,559 were born in New Zealand. ### Sampling Procedure The Time 14 (2022/2023) wave ran from 21-Sept-2022 to 14-Oct-2023. The sample contained responses from 33,722 participants (30,107 retained from one or more previous wave, 2,041 from a new cohort booster and 1,574 opt-ins). The sample retained 1,913 participants from the Time 1 (2009/2010) sample (a retention rate of 29.35%). The sample retained 24,025 participants from Time 13 (2021/2022; a retention rate of 70.39% from the previous year). Participants who provided an email address were first emailed and invited to complete an online version if they preferred. Participants who did not complete the online version (or did not provide an email) were posted a copy of the questionnaire, with a second postal follow-up two months later. A final email remainder was then sent two months following that, followed by a final postal questionnaire sent to all non-respondents near the end of the wave. We staggered the time of contact, so that participants who had completed the previous wave were contacted approximately one year after they last completed the questionnaire. We offered a prize draw for participation (five draws each for NZD 1000 grocery vouchers, NZD 5000 total prize pool). The email version used the sample planned missing protocol implemented at Time 13 (i.e., participants forecast as less likely to respond, or to respond incompletely, were provided a link to a shorter version of the online questionnaire). Given that the NZAVS sample is aging, a cohort refresher sample of people aged 18-23 was conducted by randomly selecting 35,000 people born between 1999-2003 from the New Zealand electoral roll. The New Zealand electoral roll contains participants’ date of birth (within a one-year window). Sampling was conducted without replacement (i.e., the relatively few participants in this cohort were identified and removed from the sample frame), and only those with a residential address (not a PO Box, etc.), and who were currently residing in New Zealand were included. A total of 2,041 participants who were contained in our sample frame responded to our postal invitation and completed the questionnaire (response rate = 5.83%). The Time 14 wave also used a pre-notification Facebook/Instagram advertisement, similar to that employed during Time 13. This advertisement was run during the start of data collection (and this also coincided with the cohort refresher sample). The advertisement targeted men and women aged 18-65+ who lived in New Zealand and ran for 14 days. The Facebook advertisement read as follows: “Are you part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study? The new questionnaire for 2022/2023 is now available online, and we would love to hear from you! If you would rather complete a paper version of the questionnaire, then we will be posting them out over the next few months. If you have moved recently, then please email to let us know.” This paid promotion reached 215,936 people, with 10,512 link clicks (i.e., clicking the link for the Qualtrics survey) according to Facebook. The goal of the paid promotion was twofold: (a) to increase name recognition of the NZAVS when the cohort refresher sample was conducted, and (b) to help improve retention by potentially reaching previous participants who happened to see the advertisement. A total of 1,427 people opted in to the study via the Facebook advertisement and completed the questionnaire for the first time. ![Time 14 Histogram][2] Figure 14. Histogram of weekly survey completions for Time 14 conducted from 21-Sept-2022 to 14-Oct-2023 (x axis ranges from October 2022 to October 2023, some responses to this wave may be presented on the graph for the following year; select national and international events that occurred during this data collection wave are also included for context). ## Time 15 (2023/2024) ### Sampling Procedure The Time 15 (2023/2024) is in progress. Data collection began on 15-Oct-2023. [1]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/64b38f8583c4a403085ecbd2?mode=render [2]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/655bf5f6062a3e365fee016a?mode=render [3]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a0ec2bee36d02650e5af5?mode=render [4]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a0f90dc523b02d9db4d59?mode=render [5]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a122484f52c026cfe5ef4?mode=render [6]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a1017dc523b02d9db4dca?mode=render [7]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a1036a31091022ad118ac?mode=render [8]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a105a84f52c026cfe5d2a?mode=render [9]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a13a8c861160327252ba3?mode=render [10]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a13e3c8611603382526cc?mode=render [11]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a10aa84f52c026cfe5d78?mode=render [12]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a10bebee36d02650e5c5f?mode=render [13]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a1131bee36d02620e59e9?mode=render [14]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a1142dc523b02cedb5413?mode=render [15]: https://files.osf.io/v1/resources/75snb/providers/osfstorage/648a1157bee36d020c0e5dfb?mode=render
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