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Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs) have provided the majority of electricity generated in the U.S. (1); however, the negative environmental impacts including air, water, and land pollution from the utilization of coal are significant. One of the most significant environmental impacts from CFPPs is the various trace elements emitted during the process (2,3) . The COntaminant behavior in Air, Liquid, and Solids (COALS) Controls Model focuses on modeling the fate of trace elements including chlorine, selenium, boron, bromine, lead, arsenic, mercury, and sulfur in CFPPs. ![Fig 1. COALS Controls Tool Model Overview][1] Fig 1. COALS Controls Tool Model Overview We collected data from the United States Geological Survey COAL QUALity database (4), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (5), previous literature studies (6-8), and plant observations. With sufficient inputs from the user, the model is be able to estimate the partitioning of these trace elements emitted in three different phases (solid, liquid, and gas) and the fate of these trace elements in FGD wastewater. The preliminary model for estimating the amount of trace elements in CFPPs was developed by the WE3 Lab (6). The model includes a Python interface by which the users can enter the specific air pollution control devices (APCDs) and water pollution control devices (WPCDs) used by CFPPs and the total gross power generation of the plant. After the preliminary development in Python, the WE3 Lab developed the graphical user interface of the COALS Controls Model which allows the users to use the model in a simple way. To use the model, the user needs to enter the basic information about the CFPP including the type of coal used and the total electricity generation. Then, the user can enter installed APCDs and WPCDs. Finally, the model will output the total trace elements combusted coals and the trace elements leaving the CFPP in the gas, solid, and liquid phase. An overview of the COALS controls model is shown in Figure [1] above. ---------- ### References ### 1. National Research Council. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use; The National Academics Press: Washington, D.C., 2010. 2. Clarke, L. B.; Sloss, L. L. Trace elements - emissions from coal combustion and gasification. International Energy Agency: London, UK, 1992. 3. Swaine, D. J.; Goodarzi, F. (eds.). Environmental Aspects of Trace Elements in Coal: Springer Science + Business Media Dordrecht, 1995. 4. United States Geological Survey. COALQUAL Database [Online]. United States Geological Survey. Available: [Accessed September 23 2017]. 5. United States Energy Information Administration. Form EIA-923 Detailed Data [Online]. U.S. Energy Information Administration: Washington, D.C., 2018. Available: [Accessed July 22, 2017]. 6. Sun, X.; Gingerich, D. B.; Azevedo, I. L.; Mauter, M. S.Trace elements in waste streams of U.S. coal fired power plants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 7. Gingerich, D. B., Zhao, Y. & Mauter, M. S. under review. Environmentally Significant Shifts in Trace Element Emissions from Coal Plants Complying with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Energy Policy, in press. 8. Gingerich, D.B. & Mauter, M.S. in preparation for Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. Modeling Coal-Fired Power Plant-Level Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater and Regulatory Compliance: The Impact of Coal Rank and Installed Environmental Controls. [1]:
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