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A growing chorus of voices—including the DSM-5 task force and the NIMH—has raised concerns about the validity and reliability of the phenotype Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Efforts to develop biological tests have largely failed, and few would argue that the field has made considerable advances in the treatment of patients with depression in the last 3-4 decades. In this talk, I discuss why major depression is a highly problematic phenotype, and show that studying individual depression symptoms and their dynamic relations via network models can offer ways forward.
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