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PubMed Commons is the commenting system in PubMed, the biomedical literature database developed and maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The PubMed Commons team undertakes evaluations of post-publication activities at PubMed and associated databases. Post-publication activities include letters to the editor, PubMed Commons comments, corrections, findings of the HHS Office of Research Integrity, editorial expressions of concern, and retractions and withdrawn publications.