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Introduction. Tasked-based emotion regulation (ER) is linked to enhanced connectivity between amygdala and cortical regions during resting-state. However, it is unclear whether task-based ER and its neural correlates are related to dispositional ER strategy use. The present study aimed to (1) replicate previous findings on differential cortico-limbic coupling during resting-state depending on dispositional ER strategy use; and (2) to examine whether differences in cortico-limbic coupling predict experiential and neuronal ER success in a standard ER task. All hypotheses and the analysis plan were preregistered at Methods. N = 117 adults completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), underwent an 8-min resting-state fMRI acquisition, and completed an ER task during fMRI. The sample size was more than twice as large as in the original study. Functional connectivity maps of the amygdala were associated with activity in predefined cortical regions, and correlated with ERQ scores, experiential, and neuronal ER success. Results. Opposed to prior findings, we could not replicate a correlation of dispositional ER strategy use with cortico-limbic functional connectivity (p > 0.05, FWE-corrected). Furthermore, there was no association of experiential and neuronal ER success with cortico-limbic functional connectivity (p > 0.05, FWE-corrected). All data, materials, and code for reproducible analyses can be found at Discussion. The present preregistered replication study calls into question the reported association between individual differences in resting-state cortico-limbic connectivity and dispositional ER strategy use. Ongoing advances in brain imaging and distributed network approaches may leverage the identification of reliable functional connectivity patterns that underlie successful ER.
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