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Description: The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is one of the most popular measures of individual differences in rational thought and decision making. Nevertheless, it overlaps substantially with numeracy and intelligence, which impede the interpretation of results. The present research had two main aims. First, to investigate the generalizability of Verbal CRT—a novel measure of cognitive reflection less confounded with numeracy and math anxiety than numerical CRT—in cultural contexts outside US/UK . Second, to test the factor structure linking traditional—numerical—CRT, Verbal CRT, numeracy and fluid intelligence. In Studies 1a and 1b, we adapted and tested the validity and psychometric properties of Polish versions of tasks and scales. Next, using a large and diverse sample of Polish adults, we tested five models of the factor structure of cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions (Study 2). The most parsimonious and best-fitted model contained three latent variables: Verbal CRT, Numeracy (composed of the items from the Berlin Numeracy Test and traditional—numerical —CRT), and Fluid intelligence. In line with previous research, our results show that Verbal CRT is a valid cognitive reflection measure that provides a clearer interpretation than traditional CRT, even in a different language and cultural context.

License: CC-By Attribution 4.0 International


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