Picture naming tasks provide critical data for theories of lexical representation and retrieval and have been performed successfully in sign languages. However, the specific influences of lexical or phonological factors and stimulus properties on sign retrieval are poorly understood. To examine lexical retrieval in American Sign Language (ASL), we conducted a timed picture naming study in ASL using 524 pictures (272 objects and 251 actions). We also compared ASL naming with previous data for spoken English for a subset of 425 pictures. Deaf ASL signers named object pictures faster, more accurately, and more consistently than action pictures, as previously reported for English speakers. Lexical frequency, iconicity, better name agreement, and lower phonological complexity each facilitated naming RTs. RTs were also faster for pictures named with shorter signs (measured by average response duration). Naming accuracy was higher for pictures with more iconic and with shorter ASL names. The visual complexity of pictures slowed RTs and decreased accuracy. RTs and accuracy were correlated for ASL and English naming, but overall accuracy was lower for ASL, possibly due to the English-bias of the pictures, and RTs were faster for ASL, which we attributed to a difference in lexicon size. Models of lexical retrieval developed for spoken languages can be adopted for signed languages, with the exception that iconicity should be included as a factor. The open-source picture naming dataset for ASL serves as an important, first-of-its-kind resource for researchers, educators, or clinicians for a variety of research, instructional, or assessment purposes.